Thursday, January 31, 2019

Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

"Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery", a translation of Mikhajlov, K.A. "Rannie Obraztsy Drevnerusskogo Zolotnogo Shit'ja.Novgorod i Novgorodskaja Zemlja. Istorija i arkheologia: Materialy nauchoj konferensii. Issue 21. Novgorod, 2007.

The article in the original Russian can be found here: 

http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusNovgorod/163.htm


Translation by Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL (mka John Beebe)

[Translator's notes: This is a rough translation, although I've done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets are my own. The text contains some specialized vocabulary. I have attempted to translate these, but have also there indicated the original term in transliterated Russian, sometimes with additional notes, in brackets. The original black and white images from the article have been included as well so as to translate the captions. The original article I'm translating from appears to have been processed by an optical character recognition software that was not always accurate, especially when attempting to process bibliographic data in Ukrainian. I've done my best to parse these into something that makes sense.]



Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

by K. A. Mikhajlov

One of the new and high-status categories of finds at the Rjurik Gorodische near Velikij Novgorod was the discovery of clusters of gold threads which once decorated a medieval Rus' ceremonial outfit. The collars and sometimes the cuffs or "poruch'i" of medieval Russian clothing were decorated with golden treads or gold foil [bit'] (1); they decorated liturgical vestments of the archbishops of the Orthodox church and ceremonial vestments of the medieval Rus' aristocracy. After the large-scale archaeological studies of the 20th century, finds of goldwork embroidery became a common occurrence during the excavations of medieval Russian monuments. Especially often, colors embroidered with golden threads are found during work on medieval Russian burial sites of the 12th-13th centuries. It is possible assume that a find from 2001 was only one of many along these lines (Appendix II, number 24). The unique quality of the Gorodische find is tied to the context of its location. Two clusters of gold foil fragments were found in 2001 during the excavation of the upper layers of an ancient moat on the southern edge of Gorodische hill; the first was found with the contents of a log house. The foil was a tangle of yellow metallic threads, unaffected by corrosion. Its threads were likely made from strips of foil wound around an organic base thread, most likely silk, which has not survived to our time (illus. 1) [jeb: sic. For some reason, illustration 1 is not included in the article]. The width of the thread was around 0.3 mm. Nearby finds allow us to date the finds in this layer to the second half of the 12th century (2). Until now, gold embroidery was rarely found in an urban layer, least of all in the dated complex. It seems to me that the circumstances of this Gorodische find give reason once again to review the entire category of related decoration of costume throughout the territory of Medieval Rus'.


Several technological methods were practiced for the manufacture of golden thread in the Middle Ages. They were made from metallic foil (silver, gold, or gilt-silver) of a width of around 0.2-0.5 mm, or were were made from wire with a round cross-section, wound around an organic base (illus. 2-3). Most often, they were wound onto dyed silk or linen thread. This technology is characteristic for the early medieval time and is frequently recorded among finds in Gnjozdovo, Shestaviste, Pskov, Rjurik Gorodische, and Timerevo. Thus far only one unusual example from Gnjozdovo is an exception from this, which demonstrates a particular technique: it turned out to be a gold amalgam, wrapped around a silk thread wound together with the serous membrane of an animal's intestine. According to M.V. Fekhner, technically analogous manufacture of fabric thread are found in a burial mound near the village of Rossavy and in the tomb of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij in Vladimir (3). The researcher believed that Spain may have been a place of manufacture for such silks. But, exactly the same technique was used to manufacture threads in China, and even, it seems, in Byzantium. For example, threads made from animal intestine and covered in gold amalgam were found in the tomb of Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan, dated to the beginning of the 13th century (4). Otto von Falck, a German scholar of medieval textiles, proposed that the manufacture of golden threads from animal intestine began to spread within Byzantium only in the 11th century. The find from the Gorodische layer, on the other hand, belongs to the same large-scale technological group as threads with foil wound on a silk base. Judging by the number of threads, the find may turn out to be the remains of an embroidered collar. 



2. Diagram of a gold thread from a round wire,
wrapped around a silk core.


3. Diagram of a gold thread from foil,
wrapped around a silk core.

Goldwork embroidery, decorating medieval Russian church vestments and secular ceremonial outfits, has long been one of the highlights of medieval Rus' culture. Dozens of examples of medieval Russian goldwork are preserved in the collections of domestic museums. Numerous works by researchers introduce new examples to science (5). Mainly, this font of finds is replenished by archaeologists during studies of medieval Rus' necropolises. Until recently, the most detailed archaeological finds of the medieval Rus' period were described in the works of M.V. Fekhner, M.A. Saburova, A.K. Elkina, M.O. Novitskaja, et. al. According to M.V. Fekhner's count in the 1970's, the State Historical Museum's collection alone contained no fewer than 63 exemplars of medieval Rus' ribbons and collars embroidered with goldwork. Subsequently, that researcher has already written about another 73 fragments of goldwork embroidery (6). Of these, 37 originate from burials in medieval Russian burial mounds from the 12th-13th centuries (7).

By my count, at the current moment, no fewer than 70 geographical points are reflected in the literature and archeological reports, from which more than 155 examples of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery from the 10th-13th centuries have been found. (Appendices 1-2) (8) In addition to the published finds of known origin, items are preserved in museum collections from collections without provenance [depaspartizovannye]. For example, there are no fewer than 7 examples of goldwork embroidery in the archeological collections of the Hermitage museum (OAVES); no fewer than 22 fragments in the Tarnovskij Chernihiv museum; in the department of archeological collections in the Ukraine National History Museum, around 18 examples of pre-Mongol goldwork embroidery from archeological digs (9). A significant portion of these are without documentation. New finds are also emerging from contemporaneous digs in Belgorod, Perejaslavl'-Khmel'nitskij, Chernihiv, Dmitrov, and Velikij Novgorod. It is difficult to arrive at an exact count of fragments, as one and the same item may be broken up into several items in a museum collection, and far from all of them may be published (10).


Despite the large number of finds of goldwork embroidery, the earliest examples of this form remain the most rare. For a long time, a find from the Chernihiv "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave [Chjornaja mogila], which dates to the second half of the 10th century, was considered to be one of the earliest examples of medieval goldwork. Many scholars note that fabric decorated with gold embroidery are distributed in medieval Russian graves no earlier than the 11th-12th centuries. It follows that the embroidery example from the Black Grave precedes the majority of similar finds by almost a century. Against the backdrop of the majority of much later examples of goldwork embroidery, it appears to be a rare example, not related to the later medieval Russian tradition of embroidery. But, is this a true statement?


In addition to 64 sites where medieval Russian embroidery was found from the late 11th-16th centuries, I became aware of 15 finds of 10th century goldwork embroidery made from foil and spun [drotovaja], round-in-cross-section wire, made from non-corroded yellow metal (appendix 1). I have not studied wire from white metal (silver). The earliest finds of golden threads come from graveyards: Gnjozdovo, Timerevo, Chernihiv, and Pskov. These finds are few in number, and tied to the area around early "warrior" graves from medieval Rus'. 


For example, gold thread was found in 7 burial complexes in the graveyard of Gnjozdovo. Of these, 6 belong to one and the same type of funerary rite: the burial chamber. For example, in a burial from mound TS-301, archeologists from Moscow State University discovered fabric woven from golden threads, sewn together from several lengths of silk 39-40 cm in width. Based on its characteristic weave, the fabric can be classified as "sammit" or samite (samitum). In the grave, the fabric lay alongside other remnants of clothing in a separately standing birch barrel. From complex no. 97, which represents a collection from engineer S.I. Sergeeva from several funerary complexes, come three fragments of gold threads (14). The threads were made from foil, wrapped around an unpreserved organic core. Judging from what has been preserved, the fragments of thread can be attributed to embroidery on a ribbon or lace. In a chamber from burial mound TS-198, the braid on a deceased woman's headband or headscarf was sewn with gold thread (15). According to the researcher's opinion, golden thread found in burial mound Dn-1 decorated a knotted braid which was sewn to a male kaftan with brass, mushroom-shaped buttons (16). There are references to fragments of gold thread found in Gnjozdovo burial mounds Ol'-30 nad Pol'-76 (17). A second find of gold thread, from a cremation, was tied to the large "royal" burial mound from V.I. Sizov's dig. In previous publications, a trace of gold was noted on the plates of the helm found in the burial mound. Careful study showed this trace to be gold thread made from wrapped spiral foil which fused to the helmet on the funerary pyre. Judging from the preserved fragments with three threads, each about 1.5cm long, lying parallel to each other, they decorated a ribbon or braid from the deceased's upper, ceremonial clothing. Most likely, on the funerary pyre, a part of the clothing from the inventory became pressed against the helmet. As a result, a fragment of the embroidery fused to the dome of the helmet and was mistaken as part of its ornamentation (18). An analogous find was made in Chernihiv. There, embroidery with gold threads decorated the clothing of a man buried in the great "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave. Judging by the superb preservation of the Chernihiv fabric, it was placed in the grave onto an already extinguished funerary pyre (19).


After Gnjozdov, the most respectable collection of goldwork embroidery is represented by five burials at the medieval Russian burial site in Timerjovo. Fragments of thread from yellow metal were found in cremation remains in mounds No. 285, 295, 297, 348, and 382 (20). In burial mound no. 382. a yellow wire was found which formed part of a braid on a set of sleeve cuffs. In the same grave, fragments of ornamentation from the collar of outer clothing were found, made from wire wound around an organic base, as well as a round button made from the same material. The wire was round in cross-section, about 0.3-0.5 mm. In burial mound number 385, researchers found fragments of wire that adorned the braid on the deceased's outfit. N.G. Nedoshivina and M.V. Fekhner mention grave finds of braid with silk and metal threads in burial mounds no. 263-P, 422, and 424 (21). Silk braid with gold threads decorated not only the hem of the sleeves and the collar of the outfit, but also the edges of the womens' headscarves. For example, a headscarf from burial mound no. 348 was decorated with woven gold threads. 

Most likely, fragments of gold foil from Pskov can be attributed to the same group of exmaples of early Russian goldwork embroidery. They come from burial site No. 1 (74) from the Trupekhovskovo I dig. This burial belongs to the oldest Pskov necropolis and dates to the late 10th-early 11th century. Judging by the significant number of threads (yellow metal foil wrapped around an organic core) and their location on the skeleton of the deceased male, a significant portion of the clothing was decorated with embroidery (22). This is a relatively rare example, as typically gold embroidery decorated narrow stripes on the collar and sleeves. Rare examples of ceremonial finds with similar embroidery are associated to prestigious aristocratic burials from a chamber in Jelling (Denmark), with burials in the Black Grave burial mound, and the burials of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij and Bulgarian ruler Kolojan (23).

To the number of the earliest examples of goldwork, we can also add remnants of brocade and embroidery from a headscarf from Kiev burial no. 123. This funerary chamber with an inhumed female was found near the walls of the Church of the Tithes in Kiev. A necklace, with carnelian and hollow silver beads with sculpted ornamentation, an Arabian silver coin, and a characteristic funerary rite allow us to date this to the second half to late 10th century (24).


Since M.V. Fekhner's publication, the circle of early examples of goldwork embroidery and analogous finds has expanded somewhat. We know that many male and female medieval Russian costumes in the 10th century were decorated with silk braid with metal threads. The majority of these turned out to be silver. But, a small number of these embroideries were decorated with threads made from gold. The majority of these threads were made from silk, wrapped with thin gold foil. These early finds are associated with burial grounds in Chernihiv, Gnjozdovo, Pskov, and the Rjurikovo hillfort. In all there have been 15 finds originating from the 10th century.


Analogies and origin: In the era of the early middle ages, the Franks were one of the first cultures to make use of golden thread as decoration on formal clothing. The most famous finds were related to the royal tombs of the royal Merovingian dynasty in the cathedrals of St. Denis in Paris and Cologne. Here, goldwork embroidery was found in the tombs of high-born women, apparently relatives of the royal family. In the first burial, gimp thread and embroidery decorated decorated the sleeves of the silk tunic of Queen Arnegund; in the second, the forehead area of a headscarf or veil of an unnamed female buried in the royal tomb (25). Following the Merovingians, one of the earliest finds of metallic braid are the Anglo-Saxon braids with gold threads from 6th-7th century grave sites. An example is the 9-mm wide braid from a barrow in Buckinghamshire [iz kurpsha Tegagov Barrou v Bekingemsshire]. According to M. Mueller-Ville and an entire line of other researchers, the Vendel burial sites and the make-up of the funerary inventories of royal burials in Skandinavia, Anglo-Saxon Britain and the continent are closely related. This is visible in both the armament [?] and the style of ornament that decorated precious objects and household utensils, as well as the funeral outfit. Most likely, the barbaric nobility copied Roman styles of embroidery and ornament, then later the Byzantine empire, where extensive examples of fabric decorated with golden threads were widespread.


The next blossoming of gold and silver embroidery in Northern Europe was tied to the Viking era. Finds of gold braid, for the most part, are tied to inventories from burials in Denmark and central Sweden. First of all, in Hedeby, the largest trade center of Jutland, a braid made only of gold thread was found in 3 female graves from the mid-10th century. This was found in burial chambers no. 188 (1960), 2 (1963) and 5 (1964) from the Südebrarup burial ground, located south of the city wall. In two of these, the braid was from 63 to 80 cm long and 1.2 cm wide, with the threads themselves 0.2 and 0.5-0.8 mm wide (26). In other parts of Denmark, golden threads decorating clothing were found in female grave number 4 from the Fürkart burial ground (2nd half of the 10th century), in a chamber from Hvelinghyo (second half of the 10th century), in a grave from the first half of the 10th century, in a burial mound in Ladby, and in a burial chamber under a church in Jelling (second half of the 10th century) (27). In the latter burial, golden thread decorated the entire outerwear of a male buried in a chamber. Archeologists uncovered more than 500 fragments of golden spiral fragments found throughout the entire area of the chamber (28). Similar golden threads decorated details of the clothing of a male buried in a chamber in Mammen (970-971). Of the eight graves listed above, two -- Jelling and Ladby -- are considered to be graves of members of the highest nobility, members of the royal house.


In the Scandinavian Viking era, the most significant number of burials with golden thread were found in the Swedish burial ground of Birka, where in 16 chambers, golden thread was used in braid, gimp, embroideries, and various decoration of clothing (burial sites no. 524, 542, 551, 557, 561, 643, 644, 731, 735, 736, 750, 791, 824, 832, and 844) (29). Decoration from golden thread was found in the burial complex of the Skopintul mound near Adelsho. Braid made from gold and, it appears, silken threads was discovered in the inventory from the royal mound in Gokstad, Norway (30).


Anna Krog believes that this massive and simultaneous distribution of goldwork embroidery and imported fabrics across the territory of the Danish state was tied to political events of the second half of the 10th century. Under King Harald Bluetooth and his successors, Denmark was baptized and its elite had a powerful cultural impact upon the empire. Through the Ottonian court, Byzantine cultural influences spread to the Scandinavian region. Ceremonial court clothing with embroidery and braid from gold thread appears, per A. Krog, tied to the spread of Christianity (31). It should be noted that in a number of female burials with golden thread, traditional Scandinavian upperwear with metal fibulae tend to disappear. It is replaced by a long cape embroidered at the edges with gold braid. A cape with similar braid was also found in a male burial in Mammen. It is interesting to note that the first finds of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery recall the Scandinavian finds mentioned above. They were found in two large burial mounds (the burial rites of which were, of course, related to Northern Europe and the high social status of those buried) and in eight burial chambers, monuments similar to the burial sites in Denmark and Birka.


According to M.V. Fekhner, the majority of silk fabrics were brought to the lands of Rus' from Byzantium or Spain. Indeed, the majority of medieval Russian headbands, collars, cuffs and capes decorated with gold thread may well have been imported. At the same time, many researchers believe that the significant number of goldwork embroidered items were the product of local, medieval Rus' expert needleworkers. This idea was based, for example, on a mention in a chronicle about the opening of a school for teaching goldwork embroidery in Kiev in 1086; 12th century contributions to a monastery on Mt. Athos with Russian embroidery; and several technological features of medieval Russian embroidery.


From the late 10th-early 11th century, threads of gold alloyed with silver, wrapped with silk, were actively exported from Baghdad to Egypt as trade goods. The cost of such thread was 20 times higher than the price of gold (32). Based on this information, we can assume that, no earlier than the end of the 11th century along with prepared fabrics and embroideries, these same gold threads could have reached the territory of medieval Rus' and could, in turn, have been used by local embroiderers. Prior to this, the types of ornament and the technology of producing medieval Russian goldwork are no different from Scandinavian examples from the Viking era. It would appear that Scandinavian and medieval Russian goldwork came from the same foreign source.



Appendix I: Catalog of 10th century archeological finds of goldwork embroidery



  1. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-301 (chamber), a blanket(?) woven from pieces of silk 39-40 cm wide: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10; "Put' iz varjag v greki...": Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19.
  2. Gnjozdovo, large "royal" burial mound from the Sizov dig, a helmet with a fragment of fused gold thread from embroidery: Sizov, V.I. 1885 Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR, no. 28. St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16 and 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. "Drevnerusskoe oruzhie." SAI, 1971(3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus 9, 1 (no. 9).
  3. Gnjozdovo, burial mound 97 (collection from several complexes): Bulkin, B.A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142; State Historical Museum, item 1537-586. 
  4. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-198, a gold-woven band from a headband or scarf: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  5. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Dn-4, band and braid from a kaftan: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  6. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Ol'-30, burial 1: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  7. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Pol'-76, golden thread: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  8. Chernihiv, Black Grave, embroidery from clothing, the large "royal" burial mound: Fekhner, M.V. Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija, 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  9. Timerovo, burial mound 295, golden thread twisted on a silk core, braid: Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73.
  10. Timerevo, burial mound 348: Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987(2), p. 80.
  11. Timerevo, burial mound 297, burial 1 (raek. Sadykh), golden threads from an embroidered collar: Dubov, I.V., Sedykh, V.I. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika. Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus. 4, 5.
  12. Timerevo, burial mound 285, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-3.2.
  13. Timerevo, burial mound 382, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figure 4.4.
  14. Pskov, Trupekhovskij excavation I (Zakurin), male deceased with gold thread neck to pelvis. Data: late 10th-early 11th century: Zakurina, T.Ju. "Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  15. Kiev, grave near the Church of the Tithes, no. 123. Mentioned are the remains of brocade(?) on the skull of the buried woman: Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kidievich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androshuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123. Based on the find in a single necklace (a dirkhem (Arabian silver coin), carnelian and round, hollow silver beads with decoration), it can be argued that the necklace dates to the 10th century, possibly to the last quarter of the 10th century.


Appendix II: Catalog of archeological finds of medieval Russian gold thread, gimp thread, and embroideries, 10th-13th centuries

Ukraine:

  1. Kiev: Karger, M.K. Drevnij Kiev. Vol. 1; burial no. 15 and 123 from the Molchanovskij dig (Novitskaja suggested that the fabric was part of a metropolitan vestment): Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom s izobrazheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofia Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973; Karger (silken fabrics with goldwork embroidery from the Church of the Tithes); the 1903 cache from the Mikhailovskij Monastery, see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 19-20 (4 fragments); Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1982, table 33, p. 44 (embroideries 19 and 23 from Kiev are taken into account)
  2. Belgorod, Kiev region; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Otkrytie Belgorodskogo mogil'nika." Sov. arkheologija, 1976(2), pp. 245-247; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Davn'orus'kij mogil'nik Belgoroda-Kshvskogo." Arkheologija 1980(35), pp. 98-110; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 5 fragments).
  3. Shargorod, Kiev region; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 8 fragments); Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Tekstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." Vshentsh Vjacheslavovich Kvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu archeolopju (do 150-pichchja vsch dnja narozhennja). Kiev, 2000.
  4. Nabutovo (town of Ochakov), Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 6 fragments).
  5. Romashki, Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments).
  6. Knjazh'ja Gora, Kiev region: Beljashevskij, N.F., "Raskopki na Knjazh'ej gore v 1891 g." Kievskaja Starina, 1892(XXXVI, January), p. 84, illus. 34-35; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (Tablet number 5 - 5 fragments)
  7.  Rossava, Kiev region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM (51), Moscow, 1980, p. 127, illus 2.
  8. Chernihiv: mentioned is a find of gold-woven fabric from a grave in the Church of the Savior of Chernigov: Makarenko, M.G. "Boja Chershpvs'kogo Spasa." Cherntv vshchne Livoberezhzhja. Kiev, 1928, p. 188; Makarenko, M. "Chershpvs'kij Spas." Zapiski Istorichno-fijulopchnogo vshdilu VUAK. Kiev, 1928, pp. 13-15; one more fragment of "silver brocade" was found in a grave under the apses of the 12th cent. Assumption Cathedral, see: Rybakov, B.A. "Drevnosti Chernigova." MIA (I), Moscow, 1949, p. 68; Kibal'chich, T.V. "1879 Arkheologicheskaja nakhodka." Chernigovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti. Prebavl k no. 25; mention of a find of a burial with silk fabric embroidered with gold near the Church of St. Michael: Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigovskoj uchenoj arkhivnoj komissii za 1909 g. Chernihiv, 1910; Boldin mountains, the Trinity burial mound group (burial mound IX), see; Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993(82), p. 14; fabric with goldwork embroidery from a female(?) grave in a crypt in the courtyard of Chernihiv zemstvo and burial no. 5 with a piece of gimp thread (Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (nb: no. 1-2 Chernihiv Museum): Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigoskoj uchenoj momissii za 1909 g., pp 10-11; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 34; Novitskaja, M.O, 1972, p. 44 (included 2); Marionilla in. (Salamatova) "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." "Seredn'ovkhchsh starozinoep Svdennop Ruy-UkraTni." Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelogichna konferentsja. Chernihiv, 2004, p. 71-75.
  9. Kovchinskoe town, Cherihiv region: Kovalenko, V.P, Sytyj, Ju.N. "Otchjot ob okhrannyx rabotakh v mezhdurech'e Desna i Ostra." Nauchyj arkhiv I.A. NANU, 1992(63).
  10. Larionovka, Chernihiv region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), p. 14; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeolicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215; the publication mentions that the State Historical Museum has the braid from: Guschinskoe and Strizhnevskoe burial mound groups from Chernihiv, in the article: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), Moscow.
  11. Rajki, Zhitomir province: Novitskaya, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); a dig by V.K. Goncharkov (unpublished).
  12. Zhizhava, Ternopil region: Pasternak, Ja.L. Korotka arkheologija zakhschnikh ukrashs'kikh zemel'. L'viv, 1932, p. 63; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included  2 fragments).
  13. Zvenigorod, L'viv province: Vlasova, G.M., Voznitskij, B.G. "K issledovaniju severo-zapadnoj chasti Zvenigoroda." Kratkie coobschenija o polevykh arkheologicheskikh issledovanijakh Odesskogo gos. Arkheologicheskogo muzeja v 1960 g. Odessa, 1961, table 1; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  14. Plesnesk (Podgortsy), L'viv region: "pieces of brocade ribbon and a piece of gold-woven brocade," see: Ratich, O. Dervneruc'm arkheologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhvdnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 27;  Archeologija Prekarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 113; Archelogichsh pam'jatki URSR, table 3, 5.
  15. Galich (Krilos), "in the apses of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, in the pit's inhumations were found pieces of gold-woven brocade and a tiara", "in the stone sarcophagus from the Cathedral of the Annunciation (a female about 20 years old) was found a brocade headband with gold ornament": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju archeologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhschnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 53; Chachkovs'kij, L. Knjazhij Galich. Stashslav, 1938, pp. 13-16; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, pp. 44, 48 (included 1 fragment); Tomenchuk, B.P. "Pretserkovij kladovischa knjazhogo Galicha." Galich i Galits'ka zemlja. Zbirnik naukkovikh prats'. Kiev-Galich, 1998, pp. 129-131. In 1941, Pasternak uncovered near the Cathedral of the Assumption a grave with golden embroidery. In 1990, 5 pieces with goldwork. In 1988-1989 near the village of Pitrich near a 13th century monastery was found several female burials with gold embroidered headscarves.
  16. Gorodnitsa, Ivano-Fran. region: "in a female burial was found a gold-woven headband and fabric with embroidered images of birds": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju..., p. 45; Arkheologija Prikarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 143. 
  17. Zovnino, Cherkassk region: Djadenko, V.D., Motsja, O.P. "Zhovnins'kij mogil'nik XI-XIII st." Arkheologija Kiev. 1986(54), pp. 82-90.
  18. Perejaslavl-Khmel'nitskij: Tovkajlo, V.D., Buzjan, O.P., Rozdobud'ko, M.V., et.al. "ZVIT pro okhoronni doogidzhennja davn'rus'kogo gruntovogo mogil'nika v Perjaslavl u 2005 rosh. Perejaslav-Xmel'nijij, 2006. Nauchnij arkhiv IA NANU. (a grave in the left blank area of the city, on Museum Street, in graves no. 38 and 54, housed goldwork embroidery from a collar).
  19. Ur. Kalourovodo, Perejaslavskij region, Poltava oblast: Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 32; National Museum of the History of Ukraine, no. 19287.
  20. Khersonesos: Khersonesos Museum-Reserve, inventory no. 6292; Kostjushko-Voljuzhanich, V.I. Otchet o raskopkakh v Khersonese Tavchicheskom v 1904 g." IAK (20), pp 38-39, Illus 17-18; OAK za 1904 g., p. 42, illus 63-64; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 35, table IV; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  21. Vladimir-Volynskij: Fekhner, 1977: map.

Russia:

  1. Velikij Novgorod: cuffs of Varlaam Khuynskij. Svirin, Drevnerusskoe shit'jo. Moscow, 1963, pp. 25, 27, illus. on page 25; NGMZ inventory no. 1624; Digs in the Martir'ev church entryway (Sedov, Pizhemskij) silk. Fabric with a golden embroidered "Aleksandr...": Rzhiga, P.F. "O tkanjakh domongol'skoj Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1932(IV,2), illus 2 (cuffs from the burial of Vladimir Jaroslavich); a silken golden braid with geometrical design, tablet woven, on a 12th cent. podea from Novgorod with Russian embroidery. It is preserved in the department of fabric, State Historical Museum, per: "Shjolkoye tkany kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po arkheologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 218.
  2. Velikij Novgorod, Derevjanitskij burial ground: collars with golden embroidery from 12 grave sites. See: Konetskij, Ja.V. "Drevnerusskij gruntovyj mogil'nik u poselka Derevjanitsy okolo Novgoroda." Novgorodskij istoricheskij sbornik. 2(12), Leningrad, 1982; Konetskij, Ja.V., Nosov, E.N. Zagadki Novgorodskoj okrugi. Leningrad, 1985, pp. 113-116.
  3. Rjurikovo village (Novgorod): fragments of golden thread from foil in the lower layers of the moat: NOE-2001, RG-323, section 68, gl. +1.08 meters, disassembly of the contents of building no. 1; RG-368, section 70, gr. 0.9 meter, a dark grey layer, dated the second half of the XI-XIII cent.
  4. Khreple, Novgorod region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82), Moscow, 1993, p. 17.
  5. Staraja Rjazan': Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.V. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382. Table 137, 144-145, 147-150; Jakunin, L.I. "Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani." KSIIMK 1947 (XXI), illus 36.3.
  6. Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 17-18 (2 fragments).
  7. Fat'janovka, Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 20.
  8. Maklakovo, Rjazan' region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 19 (3 fragments).
  9. Smolensk, from a grave at the Church of St. John the Divine: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 19.
  10. Kokhany, Smolensk region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  11. Krivovitsy and Zhdkalov Bor, Pskov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), Moscow, p 128; now stored in the Hermitage (OAVES), inventory number 860/19, 868/345-346 (3 fragments of braid)
  12. Dmitrov: Engovatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannyx tekstil'nyx izdelij iz nekropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  13. Suzdal': Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77.
  14. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Assumption, grave of Andrej Bogoljubskij: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' s izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972; Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 125-126, illustration 1; State Historical Museum inventory number 58400/2561/1.
  15. Shelebovo (Davydov burial mound), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 13-14 (2 fragments).
  16. Vasil'ki, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  17. Kubaevo, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14-15 (6 fragments).
  18. Osipovtsy, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15 (2 fragments).
  19. Shushpanovo, Vladimir region: see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  20. Vjazniki (town of Pirrovo - Jaropolch-Zalesskij), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 127, illus. 3; State Historical Museum no. 102338/1672/1-2.
  21. Karash, Jaroslav region: Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15-16 (4 fragments).
  22. Belogurovskaja, Ivanov region: Vladimir region:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  23. Antonovo, Ivanov region: Vladimir region, see:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  24. Zolotnikovskaja Pustyn', Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 78-79.
  25. Jakshino, Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 79-80.
  26. Moscow Kremlin, Cathedral of the Assumption (female grave, 12th century): Sheljapina, N.S., Fedorov, V.I. "Arkheologicheskie nabljudenija v Uspenskom cobore Moskovskogo Kremlja." Arkheologicheskie otkrytija 1968 g. Moscow, 1969, p. 83; Sheljapina, N.S. "Arkheologicheskie issledovanija v Uspenskom sobore." Muzei Moskovskogo Kremlja. Materialy i issledovanija 1973(1), pp. 59,60.
  27. Aseevo, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  28. Novljanskaja, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  29. Pushkino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  30. Anis'kino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  31. Kir'janova, Jaroslav region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  32. Balakhinskij district, Gor'kov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16-17.
  33. South-east Priladozh'e, Ojat' river basin: Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207.
  34. Staraja Ladoga: Kirpichnikov, SAI, Raek. 2 no 240.
  35. Beloozero (X-XIII centuries): Zakharov, S.D. Drevnerusskij gorod Beloozero. Moscow, 2004, Illus. 265, 304, 16 (3 golden fragments of thread from embroidery). On pp. 92-93, S.D. Zakharov notes that regions of concentration of "prestigious" finds align with the regions of the earliest cultural deposits. That is, fragments of embroidery may date from the earliest period - the turn of the 10th-11th centuries.

Belarus

  1. Birkovo, Kobrujst region: "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215.
  2. Grodno: Voronin, N.N. "Drevnee Grodno." MIA 1954(41). Lower church, burial 4 (a girl 9-10 years old) near the north nave. On the head, there are traces of gimp thread, p. 177; grave 1 (male) on the skull there is a gold-woven band, p. 180, illus 99.1, dated: XIII-early XIV century.
  3. Lisno, Verkhnedvinskij district: Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany i ozera Lisno." KSIA 1983(175), p. 86, illus. 2; Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany severo-zapada Polotskoj zelmli." Academia, 1996, pp. 32-33, illus 31. A part of an collar embroidered with gold thread with three bronze buttons from barrow 4. The collar is embroidered using couching. The width is 3.5 cm. A pattern of alternating crosses and birds in a circle. Silk, golden threads.
  4. Novogrudok: Gurevich, F.D. "Pogrebal'nye pamjatniki zhitelej Novogrudka (konets X-70-e gody XIII vv.)." KSIA, 1983(175), p. 52. In the grave were found 100 gold threads near the cervical vertibrae.
  5. Settlement on Menke (ancient Minsk): Zagorul'skij, E.M. Vozniknovenie Minska. Minsk, 1982, p. 357, table XLI/3. A fragment of gold-fabric collar with ornament in the form of strips/rhombuses from a layer dated to 1140-1160.
  6.  Minsk, temple 1949: Saburova, M.A. "Pogreval'naja drevnerusskaja odezhda i nekotorye voprosy ejo tipologii." Drevnosti slavjan i Rusi. Moscow, 1988, pp. 226-271; Tarasenko, V.R. "Drevnij Minsk." Materialy po arkheologii BSSR. Minsk, 1957, pp. 182-257.
  7. Polevka, near Borisovo: Sergeeva, Z.M. O rasprostranenii shjolkovykh tkanej v pamjatnikakh X-XIII vv. v Belarusi; Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.
  8. Vyshalkovskij complex, Gorodok district, Vitebsk region: Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.


Endnotes

  1. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 10.
  2. Nosov, E.N., et. al. "Novye issledovanija na Rjurikovom gorodische v 2001 g." Novgorod i Novgorodskaja zemlja: istoria i arkheologija. Novgorod, 2002, pp. 13-14.; Nosov, E.N., Mikhajlov, K.A., et.al. Issledovanija Rjurikova gorodischa. AO 2001, Moscow 2002, p. 65.
  3. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 226.
  4. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie. Tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1971, Examples 4c, 4g, 33, p. 40.
  5. Jakunin, L.I. Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani. KSIIMK XXI 1947; Levashova, V.P. "Venchiki zhenskogo golovnogo ubora iz kurganov X-XII vv." Slavjane i Rus'. Moscow, 1965; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovue tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971; Klimova, N.T. "Tekhnologija shelkovyx tkanej iz kollektsii gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeja.Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, pp. 228-243; Novitskaja, M.O. "Haptuvannja v Kyivs'kij Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na teritorii URSR)." Arxeologija (XVIII), 1965, p. 24-38; Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1972, table 33, pp. 42-50. Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom c izobrezheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofija Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973, pp. 62-63; Orlov, R.S. "Davn'orus'ka vishivka XII st." Arkheologija (12), Kiev, 1973, pp. 41-50; Saburova, M.A. "Stojachie vorotnichki i 'ozherelki' v drevnerusskoj odezhde." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoj Rusi." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976, pp 222-225; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3), pp. 130-142; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207; Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77; Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 77-85. Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 3-21; Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.B. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382, tables 137, 144-145, 147-150; Klochko, L., Vredits, Ja. "Doslschzhennja tekstilju." Tserkva Vogorodisch Desjatina v Kneei [sic]. Kiev, 1996, pp. 106-107, illus 14-16; Saburova, M.A. "Drevnerusskij kostjum." Drevnjaja Rus': Byt i kul'tura. Moscow, 1997, pp. 99-102; Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Teksstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." VshentSh Vjacheslavovich Xvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu arkheolopju (do 150-r1chchja V1D dna narozhennja). Kiev, 2000, pp. 99-110; Marionilla in. (Salamatova). "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." Seredn'oviche starozhitnosm Svdennop Rusi-Ukrajna. III Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelopchna konferentsija. Chernihiv, 2004, pp. 71-75; Enjuvatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannykh tekstil'nykh izdelij iz nedropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  6. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik...", 1971, p. 214; Fekhener [sic], M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh...", 1977, p. 149.
  7. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  8. In these calculations, I used information about foil from yellow metal (gold). Foil from white metal (silver) was not accounted for in this work.
  9. Hermitage, OAVES: Vladimir kurgans (transferred from the Archeological Institute), Location of finds is unknown. Collection 671 / 100, 101, 103; Kostroma region, excavations by F.D. Nefjodova, Collection 624 / 264; Chernihiv Historical Museum, A 5-211/5.
  10. For example, K.I. Komarov indicates a number of burial sites with finds of goldwork embroidery from the Vladimir burial mounds. Information about these finds is, so far, difficult to confirm. Burial grounds near: (1) Gorodische, near the Glinskij ravine; (2) Gorodische, near the Bremblok ravine; (3) Gorodische, on the right bank of the Sluda ravine; (all of the following are from near Suzdal') (4) Bol'shaja Brembola 1; (5) Kolenovo, Vepreva Pusyn'; (6) Seljatino-Konkzhovo; (7) Vorogovo; (8) Isakovo; (9) Gorki-Bogdanovskie; (10) Matvejschivo; (11) Konstantinove 2; (12) Fantyrevo; (13) Sverchkovo; (14) Kraskovo 1; (15) Frolischi; (16) Kosinskoe; (17) Nenashevskoe; (18) Danilovskoe; (19) Varvarino; (20) Koptevo 2; (21) Lychevo; (22) Davydovskoe Maloe; (23) Romanove; (24) Sizino 2; (25) Pogost Bykovo; (26) Isady; (27) Krasnoe 3; (28) Suzdal' (Mikhajlov side); (29) Gnjozdilovo (near); (30) Dobroe; cf: Komarov, K.M. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 82-83. On a map of goldwork embroidery finds, M.V. Fekhner notes finds of golden bands from: Volochek-Lamskij, Lisno, Vitebsk region, Vladimir-Volynskij. These finds are also, to date, not confirmed by other sources. cf: Fekhner, M.V. "Idelija shjolkotkatskix masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3). Information exists about finds of goldwork embroidery from excavations in Staraja Russa, from a grave near Raglity in the Novgorod region, and several others.
  11. In the works of M.O. Novitskaja, golden threads from the Chernihiv Trinity group of burial mounds, which originate from the 11th-12th centuries, are mistakenly attributed to finds from the 10th century.
  12. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 38, Illus. 24, 38в.
  13. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10. "Put' iz varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19; Zharnov, Ju. E. "Zhenskie skandinavskie pogrebenija v Dnjozdove." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, 1991, p. 208.
  14. GIM Sergeev Op. 1537-586; Bulkin, V. A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142.
  15. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8; "Put' ez varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, p. 54, no. 292.
  16. Avdusin, D.A., Pushkina, T.A. "Tri pogrebal'nye kamery iz Gnjozdova." Istorija i kul'tura drevnerusskogo goroda. Moscow, 1989, p. 198; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10. Stored in the Department of Archeology of Moscow State University.
  17. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10; Kamenetskaja, E. V. "1991 Zaolynanskaja kurgannaja gruppa Gnjozdova." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, pp. 125-173.
  18. Sizov, V.I. Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR. 1885 (28). St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16, 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. Drevnerusskoe oruzhie (3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus. 9, 1 (no. 9).
  19. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  20. Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshshina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73; Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), p. 80; Dubov, I.V., Sedyx, V.N. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika., Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus 4,5; Sedyh, V. "Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient." Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-2, 4.4.
  21. Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), pp. 80, 84-85.
  22. Zakurina, T. Ju. "Pogrebenie 1 (74) Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI Nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  23. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie: tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1979, pp. 9-62; Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling in the Light of recent Archaeological Excavations. A Preliminary Report." Acta Archaeologica. 1982 (53), Copenhagen, p. 202, illus 14, 25; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' c izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972.
  24. Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kishevich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androschuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123.
  25. France-Lanord, A., Fleury, M. "Das Grab der Arnegundis in Saint-Denis." Germania, 40 (2). Berlin, 1962, pp. 345, 352-353, illus 3, 5, Tables 31, 7.
  26. Hagg, I. "Textilfunde aus der Siedlung und aus den Grabern von Haithabu." Berichte uber die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu. (29), Neumunster, 1991, pp. 244-247, Illus. 123
  27. Eisenschmidt, S. "Kammergraber der Wikingerzeit in Altdanemark." Universitatsforschungen zur Prahistorischen Archaologie. (25) Bonn, 1994, pp. 99-100, 112, 115, 121.
  28. [jeb: missing in original]
  29. Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling...", p. 202, fig. 14, 25.
  30. Geijer, A. "Die Textilfunde aus den Grabern." Birka III. Uppsala, 1938, pp. 97-105.
  31. Hougen, B. "Gulltrad fra Gokstadfunnet." Honos Ella Kivikoski / SMAFFT. (75) Helsinki, 1973, pp. 77, 79, Fig. 5-8.
  32. Krag, A.M. "Frankisch-byzantinische trachteinftasse in drei danischen grabfunden des 10 jahrhunderts." Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 29(3). Mainz, 1999, pp. 425-444.
  33. Bol'shakov, O.G. Srednevekovij gorod Blizhnego Vostoka VII-seredina XIII v.: Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie otnoshenija. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2001, pp. 259-260.


1 comment:

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