Showing posts with label Russian. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Russian. Show all posts

Monday, February 4, 2019

Luxuriance in Ecclesiastical Embroidery

"Luxuriance in Ecclesiastical Embroidery", a translation of Khrebina, T.V. "Dragotsennost' v tserkovnom shit'e." Isvestija Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A.I. Gertsena. Volume 18, Issue 44. 2007, pp. 289-293.

The article in the original Russian can be found here: 
https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/dragotsennost-v-tserkovnom-shitie

Translation by Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL (mka John Beebe)

[Translator's notes: This is a rough translation, although I've done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets are my own. The text contains some specialized vocabulary. I have attempted to translate these, but have also there indicated the original term in transliterated Russian, sometimes with additional notes, in brackets.


The title of this work was perhaps the hardest part to translate. Dragotsennost' is typically used to mean "gemstone", but clearly here, the context includes the gold, silver, embroidery, stones, and all other components of ecclesiastical embroidery. As such, I have translated it as Luxuriance (the Russian word literally means "high cost"). I was greatly tempted to translate it as "Bling", but this word is a bit mundane, given the elevated subject matter.]


Luxuriance in Ecclesiastical Embroidery

by T.V. Khrebina

This work is presented by the Department of Russian Art of the I.M. Repin Institute. The supervisor is Candidate of Theology, Candidate of Architecture, Professor Father Superior Aleksandr (Feodorov).

Research works devoted to medieval Russian ecclesiastical embroidery have primarily focused on the study of historical and artistic questions. Questions of material science have received little attention. The necessity to fill this gap arose in connection with today's revival of the traditions of church embroidery.


The decoration of fabric with embroidery was well known in the lands of Rus' since the most ancient of times. The entire Russian way of life was caught up by fabrics, richly decorated with patterns, which accompanied the life of every individual from birth to death. They were indicators of wealth, and a characteristic of the moral quality of any family, regardless of their social status. Every home had a solarium [svetlitsa], the brightest and neatest rooms, or just a corner near a window. Here, they would engage in preparing fabrics that were needed for the household. There were no artificial sources of light; firelight was rarely used for this purpose. In Rus', winter was typically long, and this meant an extended period of darkened daytimes. It would not be possible for ordinary peasant women to engage in ecclesiastical embroidery at this time as it would have been in spring, summer or fall -- the brightest times of the year, suitable for such serious obedience -- which were filled with agricultural work. Therefore, from the very beginning, embroidery for the church must have been carried out by professional artisans. Only the solaria of the households of the Great Princes, royals and some boyars would have created items of ecclesiastical embroidery. 

The great demand for the manufacture of ecclesiastical artwork arose in Rus' soon after the conversion to Christianity, just as churches were being built in every city and princely court. The first Greek priests, regents, architects, and iconographers from Byzantium brought with them shrines, icons, liturgical vessels, and ecclesiastical textiles. Likewise, they brought with them the traditions and techniques of church embroidery over a long period of time, importing materials right up until the fall of the empire. 

The character of preparing items of church textiles suggests a high degree of division of labor. The creation of a single item may have included the efforts of icon painters (specialists in drawing the cartoon, or depicting nature, or writing inscriptions), dyers, jewelers, embroiderers, sewers, and other artisans. In addition, artisans would specialize in facial [lichnyj] (1), body [dolichnyj] (2), or ornamental embroidery. This work was highly paid. Only very wealthy families could maintain such an atelier. 

Considering the materials used in ecclesiastical embroidery, it's clear that they were all imported, with the exception of linen fabric: silk fabric and thread, gold, silver and gilt threads, jeweled details from precious metals, gems, pearls and beads. Foreign merchants obtained these items from distant lands: Byzantium, Persia, India, China. The distance and the dangers of these trade routes, wars, uprisings, looting and pillage, steep taxes, and in Byzantium and China, the prohibition against the export of certain goods -- these all played a direct role in the steep cost of materials. 

Gold and silver have enjoyed popularity in Russia since ancient times, as attested by archeological finds. Foreigners were amazed by their abundant use in the decoration of churches and temples, but also in festive national outfits and in everyday life. For a very long time, Rus' had no precious metals of its own; great quantities of them were purchased from Western Europe. The first examples from home-grown sources were created during the reign of Peter the Great. 

The manufacture of goldwork materials -- metallic threads (3) and their derivatives, spun thread (4) and gimp (5) -- for embroidery and weaving was established only in the early 19th century. Most often, they used gimp of various sorts, plate (6), and spangles. 

Threads from pure gold were used in Rus' until the 14th century. Later they began to use gilt threads -- thin silver or bronze wires covered in a thin layer of gold or silver. 

Gold-fabrics were imported primarily from Byzantium, and beginning in the mid-14th century, from Persia. Later, fabric from Italy and France was in great demand. It was only at the end of the 16th century, during the reign of Tsar Fedor Ioannovich, that the first manufactory was opened in Russia, establishing the production of brocade (7). The business of gold-fabric in Russia took hold in the second half of the 17th century. Several factories were built, but business grew slowly. The assortment and quality of the fabric produced here could not compete with imports. But, production constantly improved, and by the late 19th century, the quality and assortment of brocades reached the highest degree (8).

Right up until the beginning of the 20th century, silk fabric and thread was imported. These materials came at first from Byzantium and China, but later also from Persia, Turkey and Italy. A multitude of fabric items is mentioned in countless historical sources: various monastic records, manuscripts, and economic treaties. They received various names based on their place of manufacture and their ornamentation: 

  • damask (9) -- "burskaja" ["from Buer"], "misjurskaja" ["from Egypt" -- jeb: cf. Arabic مِصر‎, "Egypt"], "adamashka" ["from Damascus"], "kufter'" [jeb: cf. Persian کبوتر, "dove"], "cheshujchataja" ["scaly"], "strujchataja" ["banded"]
  • taffeta (10) -- "dvoelichnaja" ["double-sided"], "shamarkhanskaja" ["from Samarkand"(?)], "angulinnaja" ["from Angoulême"]
  • satin (11) -- "gladkij" ["smooth"], "uzornyj" ["patterned"], "nemetskij" ["German"], "kizilbashskij" ["from the Qizilbash"(?)], "turskij" ["from Tours"], "kitajskij" ["Chinese"]
  • velvet (12) -- "rymyj" ["excavated"], "kosmatyj" ["shaggy"], "dvoemorkhij" ["double frosted"], "petlevatij" ["looped"], "florenskij" ["Florentine"], "veneditskij" ["from Venice"], "turskij" ["from Tours"], "burskij" ["from Buer"], "kizilbashskij" ["from the Qizilbash"(?)], "kitajskij" ["Chinese"]
  • et. al.
During the reigns of tsars Mikhail Feodorovich and Aleksei Mikhailovich, attempts were undertaken to establish the production of silk. In the regions near Astrakhan and Moscow, the first mulberry trees were planted. By order of Peter the Great early in the 18th century, state lands were allocated in the Caucasus for sericulture. By 1762, the number of silk manufacturers had reached 44. It was only by the end of the 19th century, however, that the production of silk fabric developed from the creation of raw materials (13), because the climate was inhospitable for raising silkworms.

Textiles were typically dyed or painted to the desired shade with the aid of natural dyes. Purple (14) (red) and indigo (15) (dark blue) were most sought after, and very expensive.

Gems began to appear in Russian embroidery in the 16th century. They could be diaphanous or opaque, sparkling or matte, polished or unprocessed. Precious and semi-precious stones were sourced from many locations in Russia - the Urals, Altai, the Eastern Sayan mountains, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. At the same time, stones were also purchased in great quantities from foreign merchants. The most commonly used stones , according to historical sources, were:
  • Yellow: topaz, yellow sapphires
  • Red: so called "red sapphires" (rubies), "laly" and "chervtsy" ["worms"] (low-quality rubies), garnets (almandines, pyropes)
  • Blue: blue sapphires, "bausy" [kyanite or tourmaline]
  • Green: emeralds, beryl
Pearls for ecclesiastical embroidery were obtained "overseas," meaning they were of the highest quality (16).

Even beads were purchased up until the late 19th century in enormous quantities. The brilliant Russian scholar M.V. Lomonosov unsuccessfully called for and attempted  to establish their mass manufacture in Russia in the late 18th century. He created the first and, it would turn out, the only batch of metal and glass beads. Only in the late 19th century was the production of material finally established. 

Based on the facts presented above, it is possible to draw the following conclusion about the characteristic quality of medieval Russian church embroidery: the labor and materials were extravagantly expensive. This artwork was therefore rare and unique.

Even modern church embroidery is a little studied form of ecclesiastical artwork. It is an integral part of worship and of the church interior, and must always meet certain requirements prevailing in the Russian Orthodox Church. These provisions primarily relate to ideological content, compliance with dogmatic iconographic canon, and masterful incarnation of the material. Embroidery displayed in the church, on par with works of other ecclesiastical artwork, "serves," affects a setting, and overall creates an atmosphere in each particular parish that is unique, and yet at the same time united in spirit with all other churches during the Divine Service.

Certain circumstances in our history have given rise to the necessity to quickly find all the prerequisite items necessary for regular services. Ruined churches rise without their interior decorations. Such a situation requires great one-time material costs. No church is able to quickly resolve this problem. Impatience appears on the part of the priesthood and the congregation. Church embroidery is therefore carried out hastily. This situation naturally affects its ideological, symbolic, artistic and technical quality. Such extravagance in modern church embroidery is an almost unattainable quality. Until the need to restore this quality is understood, it is impossible to speak about the normal development of church embroidery. 

At this moment, there are two explicit tendencies directly concerning the problem of luxuriance arising from the desire to embroider "both a lot and quickly": the simplification of works, and the use of poorer materials. Both negatively affect the quality of ecclesiastical embroidery.

The value of works of modern-day ecclesiastical embroidery has plainly not yet been defined by the clergy, nor by the donors, nor by the embroiderers themselves. Practically every artisan is constantly struck by the fact that by the time they complete an order, its cost has increased many fold. Such is the fate of ecclesiastical embroidery. On the one hand, the work itself is so delicate and meticulous that a few hours of sewing covers only a few square centimeters of fabric. On the other hand, there's a great deal of unpredictability in the final result. It is impossible to foresee every nuance in the execution of this artform. Every work is an experiment, with negative results being corrected, sometimes repeatedly. The unfinished work increases, and accordingly the item becomes more and more expensive. 

The manual, painstaking work in modern ecclesiastical embroidery is recognized to be very slow and expensive. There is a widespread introduction of machine and computerized embroidery in church textiles. Today some artisans, seeking to survive economically, acquire embroidery machines. This is a natural process, and has nothing in common with authentic art, as it engages in imitation where to do so is forbidden. All too often, these artisans will, without thinking, brush aside one of the most important principles of the embroidery of faces - instead of using 2 tones of the same color, they may use as many as 20. They are employed pictorially via the art of "artistic smoothness." This in turn distorts the traditions of liturgical art.

Modern synthetic materials undoubtedly worsen the appearance of the work, even if the embroidery is meticulous. This change in the properties of artistic materials can cause unpredictable results. Therefore, it is necessary before their selection to take into account their raw materials, as well as their physical and chemical compatibility. The use of unequal, expensive and cheap materials in a single item can result in the high-end elements beginning to appear cheap. Glass, cheap beads, plastic, and gaud do not add nobility. Even the most exquisite technique of use can save such a performance. 

Awareness of luxuriance as a particular characteristic of ecclesiastical embroidery can be seen in its further development. It is necessary to inform members of the priesthood and potential benefactors of these specific features. An accurate assessment of the money spent on raw materials for the manufacture of a specific embroidered ecclesiastical item can drastically affect not only its artistic, but also its liturgical quality.


Footnotes:

  1. "Facial" [lichnoe] - the face and other parts of the body which are not covered by clothing.
  2. "Body" [dolichnoe] - the parts of the composition, including the landscape, buildings, clothing, etc. -- everything except the face and uncovered parts of the body.
  3. Metallic threads - very thin wires [voloki] made by repeatedly pulling (or "drawing") a cylindrical rod through a row of holes in an iron plate, and then through precious stones of great hardness (ruby, diamond). Classified by: chemical S, color, form of cross-section, and by configuration and texture.
  4. Spun threads [prjadenye niti] - metallic threads of various types, twisted onto a silk, linen or cotton core. 
  5. Gimp [kanitel'] - spirals of thin wire, wound around thin mandrels of various sizes.
  6. Plate [bit'] - flattened narrow metallic threads, less than 1mm wide. 
  7. Brocade [parcha] - general term in Russia for any fabric with metallic threads.
  8. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were 20 factories operating. The largest firm, supplier to the Court of His Imperial Majesty, was the Commercial-Industrial Partnership of P.I. Olovjanischnikov and Sons." The factories of the Alekseevs, Vyshnjakovs, and Shamshins were also well known.
  9. Damask [kamka] - a thin, dual-sided, monochromatic fabric, having a matte design on a shiny background on one side, and a shiny design on a matte background on the other.
  10. Taffeta [tafta] - a smooth or patterned fabric of plain weave, with small transverse ribs created by various thicknesses of warp and weft threads. 
  11. Satin [atlas] - a silk fabric with a shiny surface, achieved through a special weaving method.
  12. Velvet [barkhat] - fabric with a thick, close-cropped nap on the front side, held at the base by a plain or twill weave. 
  13. In 1913, 80% of all raw silk was imported from abroad.
  14. Until the 14th century, these were obtained from Mediterranean mollusks. 
  15. Well known since the first millenium BC. It was extracted from "true indigo" (Indigofera tinctoria). For a long time, this was one of the most expensive, and yet also one of the most popular dyes, as it had good color saturation, did not fade from washing, didn't fade, and gave fabrics durability.
  16. Pearls found in northern rivers of Rus', used only for the decoration of fabric.  

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

"Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery", a translation of Mikhajlov, K.A. "Rannie Obraztsy Drevnerusskogo Zolotnogo Shit'ja.Novgorod i Novgorodskaja Zemlja. Istorija i arkheologia: Materialy nauchoj konferensii. Issue 21. Novgorod, 2007.

The article in the original Russian can be found here: 

http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusNovgorod/163.htm


Translation by Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL (mka John Beebe)

[Translator's notes: This is a rough translation, although I've done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets are my own. The text contains some specialized vocabulary. I have attempted to translate these, but have also there indicated the original term in transliterated Russian, sometimes with additional notes, in brackets. The original black and white images from the article have been included as well so as to translate the captions. The original article I'm translating from appears to have been processed by an optical character recognition software that was not always accurate, especially when attempting to process bibliographic data in Ukrainian. I've done my best to parse these into something that makes sense.]



Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

by K. A. Mikhajlov

One of the new and high-status categories of finds at the Rjurik Gorodische near Velikij Novgorod was the discovery of clusters of gold threads which once decorated a medieval Rus' ceremonial outfit. The collars and sometimes the cuffs or "poruch'i" of medieval Russian clothing were decorated with golden treads or gold foil [bit'] (1); they decorated liturgical vestments of the archbishops of the Orthodox church and ceremonial vestments of the medieval Rus' aristocracy. After the large-scale archaeological studies of the 20th century, finds of goldwork embroidery became a common occurrence during the excavations of medieval Russian monuments. Especially often, colors embroidered with golden threads are found during work on medieval Russian burial sites of the 12th-13th centuries. It is possible assume that a find from 2001 was only one of many along these lines (Appendix II, number 24). The unique quality of the Gorodische find is tied to the context of its location. Two clusters of gold foil fragments were found in 2001 during the excavation of the upper layers of an ancient moat on the southern edge of Gorodische hill; the first was found with the contents of a log house. The foil was a tangle of yellow metallic threads, unaffected by corrosion. Its threads were likely made from strips of foil wound around an organic base thread, most likely silk, which has not survived to our time (illus. 1) [jeb: sic. For some reason, illustration 1 is not included in the article]. The width of the thread was around 0.3 mm. Nearby finds allow us to date the finds in this layer to the second half of the 12th century (2). Until now, gold embroidery was rarely found in an urban layer, least of all in the dated complex. It seems to me that the circumstances of this Gorodische find give reason once again to review the entire category of related decoration of costume throughout the territory of Medieval Rus'.


Several technological methods were practiced for the manufacture of golden thread in the Middle Ages. They were made from metallic foil (silver, gold, or gilt-silver) of a width of around 0.2-0.5 mm, or were were made from wire with a round cross-section, wound around an organic base (illus. 2-3). Most often, they were wound onto dyed silk or linen thread. This technology is characteristic for the early medieval time and is frequently recorded among finds in Gnjozdovo, Shestaviste, Pskov, Rjurik Gorodische, and Timerevo. Thus far only one unusual example from Gnjozdovo is an exception from this, which demonstrates a particular technique: it turned out to be a gold amalgam, wrapped around a silk thread wound together with the serous membrane of an animal's intestine. According to M.V. Fekhner, technically analogous manufacture of fabric thread are found in a burial mound near the village of Rossavy and in the tomb of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij in Vladimir (3). The researcher believed that Spain may have been a place of manufacture for such silks. But, exactly the same technique was used to manufacture threads in China, and even, it seems, in Byzantium. For example, threads made from animal intestine and covered in gold amalgam were found in the tomb of Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan, dated to the beginning of the 13th century (4). Otto von Falck, a German scholar of medieval textiles, proposed that the manufacture of golden threads from animal intestine began to spread within Byzantium only in the 11th century. The find from the Gorodische layer, on the other hand, belongs to the same large-scale technological group as threads with foil wound on a silk base. Judging by the number of threads, the find may turn out to be the remains of an embroidered collar. 



2. Diagram of a gold thread from a round wire,
wrapped around a silk core.


3. Diagram of a gold thread from foil,
wrapped around a silk core.

Goldwork embroidery, decorating medieval Russian church vestments and secular ceremonial outfits, has long been one of the highlights of medieval Rus' culture. Dozens of examples of medieval Russian goldwork are preserved in the collections of domestic museums. Numerous works by researchers introduce new examples to science (5). Mainly, this font of finds is replenished by archaeologists during studies of medieval Rus' necropolises. Until recently, the most detailed archaeological finds of the medieval Rus' period were described in the works of M.V. Fekhner, M.A. Saburova, A.K. Elkina, M.O. Novitskaja, et. al. According to M.V. Fekhner's count in the 1970's, the State Historical Museum's collection alone contained no fewer than 63 exemplars of medieval Rus' ribbons and collars embroidered with goldwork. Subsequently, that researcher has already written about another 73 fragments of goldwork embroidery (6). Of these, 37 originate from burials in medieval Russian burial mounds from the 12th-13th centuries (7).

By my count, at the current moment, no fewer than 70 geographical points are reflected in the literature and archeological reports, from which more than 155 examples of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery from the 10th-13th centuries have been found. (Appendices 1-2) (8) In addition to the published finds of known origin, items are preserved in museum collections from collections without provenance [depaspartizovannye]. For example, there are no fewer than 7 examples of goldwork embroidery in the archeological collections of the Hermitage museum (OAVES); no fewer than 22 fragments in the Tarnovskij Chernihiv museum; in the department of archeological collections in the Ukraine National History Museum, around 18 examples of pre-Mongol goldwork embroidery from archeological digs (9). A significant portion of these are without documentation. New finds are also emerging from contemporaneous digs in Belgorod, Perejaslavl'-Khmel'nitskij, Chernihiv, Dmitrov, and Velikij Novgorod. It is difficult to arrive at an exact count of fragments, as one and the same item may be broken up into several items in a museum collection, and far from all of them may be published (10).


Despite the large number of finds of goldwork embroidery, the earliest examples of this form remain the most rare. For a long time, a find from the Chernihiv "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave [Chjornaja mogila], which dates to the second half of the 10th century, was considered to be one of the earliest examples of medieval goldwork. Many scholars note that fabric decorated with gold embroidery are distributed in medieval Russian graves no earlier than the 11th-12th centuries. It follows that the embroidery example from the Black Grave precedes the majority of similar finds by almost a century. Against the backdrop of the majority of much later examples of goldwork embroidery, it appears to be a rare example, not related to the later medieval Russian tradition of embroidery. But, is this a true statement?


In addition to 64 sites where medieval Russian embroidery was found from the late 11th-16th centuries, I became aware of 15 finds of 10th century goldwork embroidery made from foil and spun [drotovaja], round-in-cross-section wire, made from non-corroded yellow metal (appendix 1). I have not studied wire from white metal (silver). The earliest finds of golden threads come from graveyards: Gnjozdovo, Timerevo, Chernihiv, and Pskov. These finds are few in number, and tied to the area around early "warrior" graves from medieval Rus'. 


For example, gold thread was found in 7 burial complexes in the graveyard of Gnjozdovo. Of these, 6 belong to one and the same type of funerary rite: the burial chamber. For example, in a burial from mound TS-301, archeologists from Moscow State University discovered fabric woven from golden threads, sewn together from several lengths of silk 39-40 cm in width. Based on its characteristic weave, the fabric can be classified as "sammit" or samite (samitum). In the grave, the fabric lay alongside other remnants of clothing in a separately standing birch barrel. From complex no. 97, which represents a collection from engineer S.I. Sergeeva from several funerary complexes, come three fragments of gold threads (14). The threads were made from foil, wrapped around an unpreserved organic core. Judging from what has been preserved, the fragments of thread can be attributed to embroidery on a ribbon or lace. In a chamber from burial mound TS-198, the braid on a deceased woman's headband or headscarf was sewn with gold thread (15). According to the researcher's opinion, golden thread found in burial mound Dn-1 decorated a knotted braid which was sewn to a male kaftan with brass, mushroom-shaped buttons (16). There are references to fragments of gold thread found in Gnjozdovo burial mounds Ol'-30 nad Pol'-76 (17). A second find of gold thread, from a cremation, was tied to the large "royal" burial mound from V.I. Sizov's dig. In previous publications, a trace of gold was noted on the plates of the helm found in the burial mound. Careful study showed this trace to be gold thread made from wrapped spiral foil which fused to the helmet on the funerary pyre. Judging from the preserved fragments with three threads, each about 1.5cm long, lying parallel to each other, they decorated a ribbon or braid from the deceased's upper, ceremonial clothing. Most likely, on the funerary pyre, a part of the clothing from the inventory became pressed against the helmet. As a result, a fragment of the embroidery fused to the dome of the helmet and was mistaken as part of its ornamentation (18). An analogous find was made in Chernihiv. There, embroidery with gold threads decorated the clothing of a man buried in the great "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave. Judging by the superb preservation of the Chernihiv fabric, it was placed in the grave onto an already extinguished funerary pyre (19).


After Gnjozdov, the most respectable collection of goldwork embroidery is represented by five burials at the medieval Russian burial site in Timerjovo. Fragments of thread from yellow metal were found in cremation remains in mounds No. 285, 295, 297, 348, and 382 (20). In burial mound no. 382. a yellow wire was found which formed part of a braid on a set of sleeve cuffs. In the same grave, fragments of ornamentation from the collar of outer clothing were found, made from wire wound around an organic base, as well as a round button made from the same material. The wire was round in cross-section, about 0.3-0.5 mm. In burial mound number 385, researchers found fragments of wire that adorned the braid on the deceased's outfit. N.G. Nedoshivina and M.V. Fekhner mention grave finds of braid with silk and metal threads in burial mounds no. 263-P, 422, and 424 (21). Silk braid with gold threads decorated not only the hem of the sleeves and the collar of the outfit, but also the edges of the womens' headscarves. For example, a headscarf from burial mound no. 348 was decorated with woven gold threads. 

Most likely, fragments of gold foil from Pskov can be attributed to the same group of exmaples of early Russian goldwork embroidery. They come from burial site No. 1 (74) from the Trupekhovskovo I dig. This burial belongs to the oldest Pskov necropolis and dates to the late 10th-early 11th century. Judging by the significant number of threads (yellow metal foil wrapped around an organic core) and their location on the skeleton of the deceased male, a significant portion of the clothing was decorated with embroidery (22). This is a relatively rare example, as typically gold embroidery decorated narrow stripes on the collar and sleeves. Rare examples of ceremonial finds with similar embroidery are associated to prestigious aristocratic burials from a chamber in Jelling (Denmark), with burials in the Black Grave burial mound, and the burials of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij and Bulgarian ruler Kolojan (23).

To the number of the earliest examples of goldwork, we can also add remnants of brocade and embroidery from a headscarf from Kiev burial no. 123. This funerary chamber with an inhumed female was found near the walls of the Church of the Tithes in Kiev. A necklace, with carnelian and hollow silver beads with sculpted ornamentation, an Arabian silver coin, and a characteristic funerary rite allow us to date this to the second half to late 10th century (24).


Since M.V. Fekhner's publication, the circle of early examples of goldwork embroidery and analogous finds has expanded somewhat. We know that many male and female medieval Russian costumes in the 10th century were decorated with silk braid with metal threads. The majority of these turned out to be silver. But, a small number of these embroideries were decorated with threads made from gold. The majority of these threads were made from silk, wrapped with thin gold foil. These early finds are associated with burial grounds in Chernihiv, Gnjozdovo, Pskov, and the Rjurikovo hillfort. In all there have been 15 finds originating from the 10th century.


Analogies and origin: In the era of the early middle ages, the Franks were one of the first cultures to make use of golden thread as decoration on formal clothing. The most famous finds were related to the royal tombs of the royal Merovingian dynasty in the cathedrals of St. Denis in Paris and Cologne. Here, goldwork embroidery was found in the tombs of high-born women, apparently relatives of the royal family. In the first burial, gimp thread and embroidery decorated decorated the sleeves of the silk tunic of Queen Arnegund; in the second, the forehead area of a headscarf or veil of an unnamed female buried in the royal tomb (25). Following the Merovingians, one of the earliest finds of metallic braid are the Anglo-Saxon braids with gold threads from 6th-7th century grave sites. An example is the 9-mm wide braid from a barrow in Buckinghamshire [iz kurpsha Tegagov Barrou v Bekingemsshire]. According to M. Mueller-Ville and an entire line of other researchers, the Vendel burial sites and the make-up of the funerary inventories of royal burials in Skandinavia, Anglo-Saxon Britain and the continent are closely related. This is visible in both the armament [?] and the style of ornament that decorated precious objects and household utensils, as well as the funeral outfit. Most likely, the barbaric nobility copied Roman styles of embroidery and ornament, then later the Byzantine empire, where extensive examples of fabric decorated with golden threads were widespread.


The next blossoming of gold and silver embroidery in Northern Europe was tied to the Viking era. Finds of gold braid, for the most part, are tied to inventories from burials in Denmark and central Sweden. First of all, in Hedeby, the largest trade center of Jutland, a braid made only of gold thread was found in 3 female graves from the mid-10th century. This was found in burial chambers no. 188 (1960), 2 (1963) and 5 (1964) from the Südebrarup burial ground, located south of the city wall. In two of these, the braid was from 63 to 80 cm long and 1.2 cm wide, with the threads themselves 0.2 and 0.5-0.8 mm wide (26). In other parts of Denmark, golden threads decorating clothing were found in female grave number 4 from the Fürkart burial ground (2nd half of the 10th century), in a chamber from Hvelinghyo (second half of the 10th century), in a grave from the first half of the 10th century, in a burial mound in Ladby, and in a burial chamber under a church in Jelling (second half of the 10th century) (27). In the latter burial, golden thread decorated the entire outerwear of a male buried in a chamber. Archeologists uncovered more than 500 fragments of golden spiral fragments found throughout the entire area of the chamber (28). Similar golden threads decorated details of the clothing of a male buried in a chamber in Mammen (970-971). Of the eight graves listed above, two -- Jelling and Ladby -- are considered to be graves of members of the highest nobility, members of the royal house.


In the Scandinavian Viking era, the most significant number of burials with golden thread were found in the Swedish burial ground of Birka, where in 16 chambers, golden thread was used in braid, gimp, embroideries, and various decoration of clothing (burial sites no. 524, 542, 551, 557, 561, 643, 644, 731, 735, 736, 750, 791, 824, 832, and 844) (29). Decoration from golden thread was found in the burial complex of the Skopintul mound near Adelsho. Braid made from gold and, it appears, silken threads was discovered in the inventory from the royal mound in Gokstad, Norway (30).


Anna Krog believes that this massive and simultaneous distribution of goldwork embroidery and imported fabrics across the territory of the Danish state was tied to political events of the second half of the 10th century. Under King Harald Bluetooth and his successors, Denmark was baptized and its elite had a powerful cultural impact upon the empire. Through the Ottonian court, Byzantine cultural influences spread to the Scandinavian region. Ceremonial court clothing with embroidery and braid from gold thread appears, per A. Krog, tied to the spread of Christianity (31). It should be noted that in a number of female burials with golden thread, traditional Scandinavian upperwear with metal fibulae tend to disappear. It is replaced by a long cape embroidered at the edges with gold braid. A cape with similar braid was also found in a male burial in Mammen. It is interesting to note that the first finds of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery recall the Scandinavian finds mentioned above. They were found in two large burial mounds (the burial rites of which were, of course, related to Northern Europe and the high social status of those buried) and in eight burial chambers, monuments similar to the burial sites in Denmark and Birka.


According to M.V. Fekhner, the majority of silk fabrics were brought to the lands of Rus' from Byzantium or Spain. Indeed, the majority of medieval Russian headbands, collars, cuffs and capes decorated with gold thread may well have been imported. At the same time, many researchers believe that the significant number of goldwork embroidered items were the product of local, medieval Rus' expert needleworkers. This idea was based, for example, on a mention in a chronicle about the opening of a school for teaching goldwork embroidery in Kiev in 1086; 12th century contributions to a monastery on Mt. Athos with Russian embroidery; and several technological features of medieval Russian embroidery.


From the late 10th-early 11th century, threads of gold alloyed with silver, wrapped with silk, were actively exported from Baghdad to Egypt as trade goods. The cost of such thread was 20 times higher than the price of gold (32). Based on this information, we can assume that, no earlier than the end of the 11th century along with prepared fabrics and embroideries, these same gold threads could have reached the territory of medieval Rus' and could, in turn, have been used by local embroiderers. Prior to this, the types of ornament and the technology of producing medieval Russian goldwork are no different from Scandinavian examples from the Viking era. It would appear that Scandinavian and medieval Russian goldwork came from the same foreign source.



Appendix I: Catalog of 10th century archeological finds of goldwork embroidery



  1. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-301 (chamber), a blanket(?) woven from pieces of silk 39-40 cm wide: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10; "Put' iz varjag v greki...": Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19.
  2. Gnjozdovo, large "royal" burial mound from the Sizov dig, a helmet with a fragment of fused gold thread from embroidery: Sizov, V.I. 1885 Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR, no. 28. St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16 and 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. "Drevnerusskoe oruzhie." SAI, 1971(3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus 9, 1 (no. 9).
  3. Gnjozdovo, burial mound 97 (collection from several complexes): Bulkin, B.A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142; State Historical Museum, item 1537-586. 
  4. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-198, a gold-woven band from a headband or scarf: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  5. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Dn-4, band and braid from a kaftan: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  6. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Ol'-30, burial 1: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  7. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Pol'-76, golden thread: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  8. Chernihiv, Black Grave, embroidery from clothing, the large "royal" burial mound: Fekhner, M.V. Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija, 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  9. Timerovo, burial mound 295, golden thread twisted on a silk core, braid: Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73.
  10. Timerevo, burial mound 348: Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987(2), p. 80.
  11. Timerevo, burial mound 297, burial 1 (raek. Sadykh), golden threads from an embroidered collar: Dubov, I.V., Sedykh, V.I. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika. Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus. 4, 5.
  12. Timerevo, burial mound 285, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-3.2.
  13. Timerevo, burial mound 382, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figure 4.4.
  14. Pskov, Trupekhovskij excavation I (Zakurin), male deceased with gold thread neck to pelvis. Data: late 10th-early 11th century: Zakurina, T.Ju. "Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  15. Kiev, grave near the Church of the Tithes, no. 123. Mentioned are the remains of brocade(?) on the skull of the buried woman: Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kidievich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androshuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123. Based on the find in a single necklace (a dirkhem (Arabian silver coin), carnelian and round, hollow silver beads with decoration), it can be argued that the necklace dates to the 10th century, possibly to the last quarter of the 10th century.


Appendix II: Catalog of archeological finds of medieval Russian gold thread, gimp thread, and embroideries, 10th-13th centuries

Ukraine:

  1. Kiev: Karger, M.K. Drevnij Kiev. Vol. 1; burial no. 15 and 123 from the Molchanovskij dig (Novitskaja suggested that the fabric was part of a metropolitan vestment): Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom s izobrazheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofia Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973; Karger (silken fabrics with goldwork embroidery from the Church of the Tithes); the 1903 cache from the Mikhailovskij Monastery, see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 19-20 (4 fragments); Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1982, table 33, p. 44 (embroideries 19 and 23 from Kiev are taken into account)
  2. Belgorod, Kiev region; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Otkrytie Belgorodskogo mogil'nika." Sov. arkheologija, 1976(2), pp. 245-247; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Davn'orus'kij mogil'nik Belgoroda-Kshvskogo." Arkheologija 1980(35), pp. 98-110; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 5 fragments).
  3. Shargorod, Kiev region; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 8 fragments); Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Tekstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." Vshentsh Vjacheslavovich Kvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu archeolopju (do 150-pichchja vsch dnja narozhennja). Kiev, 2000.
  4. Nabutovo (town of Ochakov), Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 6 fragments).
  5. Romashki, Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments).
  6. Knjazh'ja Gora, Kiev region: Beljashevskij, N.F., "Raskopki na Knjazh'ej gore v 1891 g." Kievskaja Starina, 1892(XXXVI, January), p. 84, illus. 34-35; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (Tablet number 5 - 5 fragments)
  7.  Rossava, Kiev region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM (51), Moscow, 1980, p. 127, illus 2.
  8. Chernihiv: mentioned is a find of gold-woven fabric from a grave in the Church of the Savior of Chernigov: Makarenko, M.G. "Boja Chershpvs'kogo Spasa." Cherntv vshchne Livoberezhzhja. Kiev, 1928, p. 188; Makarenko, M. "Chershpvs'kij Spas." Zapiski Istorichno-fijulopchnogo vshdilu VUAK. Kiev, 1928, pp. 13-15; one more fragment of "silver brocade" was found in a grave under the apses of the 12th cent. Assumption Cathedral, see: Rybakov, B.A. "Drevnosti Chernigova." MIA (I), Moscow, 1949, p. 68; Kibal'chich, T.V. "1879 Arkheologicheskaja nakhodka." Chernigovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti. Prebavl k no. 25; mention of a find of a burial with silk fabric embroidered with gold near the Church of St. Michael: Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigovskoj uchenoj arkhivnoj komissii za 1909 g. Chernihiv, 1910; Boldin mountains, the Trinity burial mound group (burial mound IX), see; Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993(82), p. 14; fabric with goldwork embroidery from a female(?) grave in a crypt in the courtyard of Chernihiv zemstvo and burial no. 5 with a piece of gimp thread (Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (nb: no. 1-2 Chernihiv Museum): Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigoskoj uchenoj momissii za 1909 g., pp 10-11; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 34; Novitskaja, M.O, 1972, p. 44 (included 2); Marionilla in. (Salamatova) "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." "Seredn'ovkhchsh starozinoep Svdennop Ruy-UkraTni." Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelogichna konferentsja. Chernihiv, 2004, p. 71-75.
  9. Kovchinskoe town, Cherihiv region: Kovalenko, V.P, Sytyj, Ju.N. "Otchjot ob okhrannyx rabotakh v mezhdurech'e Desna i Ostra." Nauchyj arkhiv I.A. NANU, 1992(63).
  10. Larionovka, Chernihiv region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), p. 14; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeolicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215; the publication mentions that the State Historical Museum has the braid from: Guschinskoe and Strizhnevskoe burial mound groups from Chernihiv, in the article: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), Moscow.
  11. Rajki, Zhitomir province: Novitskaya, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); a dig by V.K. Goncharkov (unpublished).
  12. Zhizhava, Ternopil region: Pasternak, Ja.L. Korotka arkheologija zakhschnikh ukrashs'kikh zemel'. L'viv, 1932, p. 63; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included  2 fragments).
  13. Zvenigorod, L'viv province: Vlasova, G.M., Voznitskij, B.G. "K issledovaniju severo-zapadnoj chasti Zvenigoroda." Kratkie coobschenija o polevykh arkheologicheskikh issledovanijakh Odesskogo gos. Arkheologicheskogo muzeja v 1960 g. Odessa, 1961, table 1; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  14. Plesnesk (Podgortsy), L'viv region: "pieces of brocade ribbon and a piece of gold-woven brocade," see: Ratich, O. Dervneruc'm arkheologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhvdnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 27;  Archeologija Prekarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 113; Archelogichsh pam'jatki URSR, table 3, 5.
  15. Galich (Krilos), "in the apses of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, in the pit's inhumations were found pieces of gold-woven brocade and a tiara", "in the stone sarcophagus from the Cathedral of the Annunciation (a female about 20 years old) was found a brocade headband with gold ornament": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju archeologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhschnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 53; Chachkovs'kij, L. Knjazhij Galich. Stashslav, 1938, pp. 13-16; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, pp. 44, 48 (included 1 fragment); Tomenchuk, B.P. "Pretserkovij kladovischa knjazhogo Galicha." Galich i Galits'ka zemlja. Zbirnik naukkovikh prats'. Kiev-Galich, 1998, pp. 129-131. In 1941, Pasternak uncovered near the Cathedral of the Assumption a grave with golden embroidery. In 1990, 5 pieces with goldwork. In 1988-1989 near the village of Pitrich near a 13th century monastery was found several female burials with gold embroidered headscarves.
  16. Gorodnitsa, Ivano-Fran. region: "in a female burial was found a gold-woven headband and fabric with embroidered images of birds": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju..., p. 45; Arkheologija Prikarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 143. 
  17. Zovnino, Cherkassk region: Djadenko, V.D., Motsja, O.P. "Zhovnins'kij mogil'nik XI-XIII st." Arkheologija Kiev. 1986(54), pp. 82-90.
  18. Perejaslavl-Khmel'nitskij: Tovkajlo, V.D., Buzjan, O.P., Rozdobud'ko, M.V., et.al. "ZVIT pro okhoronni doogidzhennja davn'rus'kogo gruntovogo mogil'nika v Perjaslavl u 2005 rosh. Perejaslav-Xmel'nijij, 2006. Nauchnij arkhiv IA NANU. (a grave in the left blank area of the city, on Museum Street, in graves no. 38 and 54, housed goldwork embroidery from a collar).
  19. Ur. Kalourovodo, Perejaslavskij region, Poltava oblast: Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 32; National Museum of the History of Ukraine, no. 19287.
  20. Khersonesos: Khersonesos Museum-Reserve, inventory no. 6292; Kostjushko-Voljuzhanich, V.I. Otchet o raskopkakh v Khersonese Tavchicheskom v 1904 g." IAK (20), pp 38-39, Illus 17-18; OAK za 1904 g., p. 42, illus 63-64; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 35, table IV; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  21. Vladimir-Volynskij: Fekhner, 1977: map.

Russia:

  1. Velikij Novgorod: cuffs of Varlaam Khuynskij. Svirin, Drevnerusskoe shit'jo. Moscow, 1963, pp. 25, 27, illus. on page 25; NGMZ inventory no. 1624; Digs in the Martir'ev church entryway (Sedov, Pizhemskij) silk. Fabric with a golden embroidered "Aleksandr...": Rzhiga, P.F. "O tkanjakh domongol'skoj Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1932(IV,2), illus 2 (cuffs from the burial of Vladimir Jaroslavich); a silken golden braid with geometrical design, tablet woven, on a 12th cent. podea from Novgorod with Russian embroidery. It is preserved in the department of fabric, State Historical Museum, per: "Shjolkoye tkany kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po arkheologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 218.
  2. Velikij Novgorod, Derevjanitskij burial ground: collars with golden embroidery from 12 grave sites. See: Konetskij, Ja.V. "Drevnerusskij gruntovyj mogil'nik u poselka Derevjanitsy okolo Novgoroda." Novgorodskij istoricheskij sbornik. 2(12), Leningrad, 1982; Konetskij, Ja.V., Nosov, E.N. Zagadki Novgorodskoj okrugi. Leningrad, 1985, pp. 113-116.
  3. Rjurikovo village (Novgorod): fragments of golden thread from foil in the lower layers of the moat: NOE-2001, RG-323, section 68, gl. +1.08 meters, disassembly of the contents of building no. 1; RG-368, section 70, gr. 0.9 meter, a dark grey layer, dated the second half of the XI-XIII cent.
  4. Khreple, Novgorod region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82), Moscow, 1993, p. 17.
  5. Staraja Rjazan': Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.V. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382. Table 137, 144-145, 147-150; Jakunin, L.I. "Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani." KSIIMK 1947 (XXI), illus 36.3.
  6. Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 17-18 (2 fragments).
  7. Fat'janovka, Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 20.
  8. Maklakovo, Rjazan' region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 19 (3 fragments).
  9. Smolensk, from a grave at the Church of St. John the Divine: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 19.
  10. Kokhany, Smolensk region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  11. Krivovitsy and Zhdkalov Bor, Pskov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), Moscow, p 128; now stored in the Hermitage (OAVES), inventory number 860/19, 868/345-346 (3 fragments of braid)
  12. Dmitrov: Engovatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannyx tekstil'nyx izdelij iz nekropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  13. Suzdal': Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77.
  14. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Assumption, grave of Andrej Bogoljubskij: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' s izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972; Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 125-126, illustration 1; State Historical Museum inventory number 58400/2561/1.
  15. Shelebovo (Davydov burial mound), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 13-14 (2 fragments).
  16. Vasil'ki, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  17. Kubaevo, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14-15 (6 fragments).
  18. Osipovtsy, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15 (2 fragments).
  19. Shushpanovo, Vladimir region: see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  20. Vjazniki (town of Pirrovo - Jaropolch-Zalesskij), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 127, illus. 3; State Historical Museum no. 102338/1672/1-2.
  21. Karash, Jaroslav region: Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15-16 (4 fragments).
  22. Belogurovskaja, Ivanov region: Vladimir region:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  23. Antonovo, Ivanov region: Vladimir region, see:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  24. Zolotnikovskaja Pustyn', Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 78-79.
  25. Jakshino, Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 79-80.
  26. Moscow Kremlin, Cathedral of the Assumption (female grave, 12th century): Sheljapina, N.S., Fedorov, V.I. "Arkheologicheskie nabljudenija v Uspenskom cobore Moskovskogo Kremlja." Arkheologicheskie otkrytija 1968 g. Moscow, 1969, p. 83; Sheljapina, N.S. "Arkheologicheskie issledovanija v Uspenskom sobore." Muzei Moskovskogo Kremlja. Materialy i issledovanija 1973(1), pp. 59,60.
  27. Aseevo, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  28. Novljanskaja, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  29. Pushkino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  30. Anis'kino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  31. Kir'janova, Jaroslav region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  32. Balakhinskij district, Gor'kov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16-17.
  33. South-east Priladozh'e, Ojat' river basin: Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207.
  34. Staraja Ladoga: Kirpichnikov, SAI, Raek. 2 no 240.
  35. Beloozero (X-XIII centuries): Zakharov, S.D. Drevnerusskij gorod Beloozero. Moscow, 2004, Illus. 265, 304, 16 (3 golden fragments of thread from embroidery). On pp. 92-93, S.D. Zakharov notes that regions of concentration of "prestigious" finds align with the regions of the earliest cultural deposits. That is, fragments of embroidery may date from the earliest period - the turn of the 10th-11th centuries.

Belarus

  1. Birkovo, Kobrujst region: "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215.
  2. Grodno: Voronin, N.N. "Drevnee Grodno." MIA 1954(41). Lower church, burial 4 (a girl 9-10 years old) near the north nave. On the head, there are traces of gimp thread, p. 177; grave 1 (male) on the skull there is a gold-woven band, p. 180, illus 99.1, dated: XIII-early XIV century.
  3. Lisno, Verkhnedvinskij district: Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany i ozera Lisno." KSIA 1983(175), p. 86, illus. 2; Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany severo-zapada Polotskoj zelmli." Academia, 1996, pp. 32-33, illus 31. A part of an collar embroidered with gold thread with three bronze buttons from barrow 4. The collar is embroidered using couching. The width is 3.5 cm. A pattern of alternating crosses and birds in a circle. Silk, golden threads.
  4. Novogrudok: Gurevich, F.D. "Pogrebal'nye pamjatniki zhitelej Novogrudka (konets X-70-e gody XIII vv.)." KSIA, 1983(175), p. 52. In the grave were found 100 gold threads near the cervical vertibrae.
  5. Settlement on Menke (ancient Minsk): Zagorul'skij, E.M. Vozniknovenie Minska. Minsk, 1982, p. 357, table XLI/3. A fragment of gold-fabric collar with ornament in the form of strips/rhombuses from a layer dated to 1140-1160.
  6.  Minsk, temple 1949: Saburova, M.A. "Pogreval'naja drevnerusskaja odezhda i nekotorye voprosy ejo tipologii." Drevnosti slavjan i Rusi. Moscow, 1988, pp. 226-271; Tarasenko, V.R. "Drevnij Minsk." Materialy po arkheologii BSSR. Minsk, 1957, pp. 182-257.
  7. Polevka, near Borisovo: Sergeeva, Z.M. O rasprostranenii shjolkovykh tkanej v pamjatnikakh X-XIII vv. v Belarusi; Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.
  8. Vyshalkovskij complex, Gorodok district, Vitebsk region: Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.


Endnotes

  1. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 10.
  2. Nosov, E.N., et. al. "Novye issledovanija na Rjurikovom gorodische v 2001 g." Novgorod i Novgorodskaja zemlja: istoria i arkheologija. Novgorod, 2002, pp. 13-14.; Nosov, E.N., Mikhajlov, K.A., et.al. Issledovanija Rjurikova gorodischa. AO 2001, Moscow 2002, p. 65.
  3. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 226.
  4. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie. Tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1971, Examples 4c, 4g, 33, p. 40.
  5. Jakunin, L.I. Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani. KSIIMK XXI 1947; Levashova, V.P. "Venchiki zhenskogo golovnogo ubora iz kurganov X-XII vv." Slavjane i Rus'. Moscow, 1965; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovue tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971; Klimova, N.T. "Tekhnologija shelkovyx tkanej iz kollektsii gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeja.Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, pp. 228-243; Novitskaja, M.O. "Haptuvannja v Kyivs'kij Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na teritorii URSR)." Arxeologija (XVIII), 1965, p. 24-38; Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1972, table 33, pp. 42-50. Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom c izobrezheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofija Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973, pp. 62-63; Orlov, R.S. "Davn'orus'ka vishivka XII st." Arkheologija (12), Kiev, 1973, pp. 41-50; Saburova, M.A. "Stojachie vorotnichki i 'ozherelki' v drevnerusskoj odezhde." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoj Rusi." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976, pp 222-225; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3), pp. 130-142; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207; Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77; Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 77-85. Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 3-21; Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.B. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382, tables 137, 144-145, 147-150; Klochko, L., Vredits, Ja. "Doslschzhennja tekstilju." Tserkva Vogorodisch Desjatina v Kneei [sic]. Kiev, 1996, pp. 106-107, illus 14-16; Saburova, M.A. "Drevnerusskij kostjum." Drevnjaja Rus': Byt i kul'tura. Moscow, 1997, pp. 99-102; Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Teksstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." VshentSh Vjacheslavovich Xvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu arkheolopju (do 150-r1chchja V1D dna narozhennja). Kiev, 2000, pp. 99-110; Marionilla in. (Salamatova). "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." Seredn'oviche starozhitnosm Svdennop Rusi-Ukrajna. III Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelopchna konferentsija. Chernihiv, 2004, pp. 71-75; Enjuvatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannykh tekstil'nykh izdelij iz nedropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  6. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik...", 1971, p. 214; Fekhener [sic], M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh...", 1977, p. 149.
  7. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  8. In these calculations, I used information about foil from yellow metal (gold). Foil from white metal (silver) was not accounted for in this work.
  9. Hermitage, OAVES: Vladimir kurgans (transferred from the Archeological Institute), Location of finds is unknown. Collection 671 / 100, 101, 103; Kostroma region, excavations by F.D. Nefjodova, Collection 624 / 264; Chernihiv Historical Museum, A 5-211/5.
  10. For example, K.I. Komarov indicates a number of burial sites with finds of goldwork embroidery from the Vladimir burial mounds. Information about these finds is, so far, difficult to confirm. Burial grounds near: (1) Gorodische, near the Glinskij ravine; (2) Gorodische, near the Bremblok ravine; (3) Gorodische, on the right bank of the Sluda ravine; (all of the following are from near Suzdal') (4) Bol'shaja Brembola 1; (5) Kolenovo, Vepreva Pusyn'; (6) Seljatino-Konkzhovo; (7) Vorogovo; (8) Isakovo; (9) Gorki-Bogdanovskie; (10) Matvejschivo; (11) Konstantinove 2; (12) Fantyrevo; (13) Sverchkovo; (14) Kraskovo 1; (15) Frolischi; (16) Kosinskoe; (17) Nenashevskoe; (18) Danilovskoe; (19) Varvarino; (20) Koptevo 2; (21) Lychevo; (22) Davydovskoe Maloe; (23) Romanove; (24) Sizino 2; (25) Pogost Bykovo; (26) Isady; (27) Krasnoe 3; (28) Suzdal' (Mikhajlov side); (29) Gnjozdilovo (near); (30) Dobroe; cf: Komarov, K.M. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 82-83. On a map of goldwork embroidery finds, M.V. Fekhner notes finds of golden bands from: Volochek-Lamskij, Lisno, Vitebsk region, Vladimir-Volynskij. These finds are also, to date, not confirmed by other sources. cf: Fekhner, M.V. "Idelija shjolkotkatskix masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3). Information exists about finds of goldwork embroidery from excavations in Staraja Russa, from a grave near Raglity in the Novgorod region, and several others.
  11. In the works of M.O. Novitskaja, golden threads from the Chernihiv Trinity group of burial mounds, which originate from the 11th-12th centuries, are mistakenly attributed to finds from the 10th century.
  12. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 38, Illus. 24, 38в.
  13. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10. "Put' iz varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19; Zharnov, Ju. E. "Zhenskie skandinavskie pogrebenija v Dnjozdove." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, 1991, p. 208.
  14. GIM Sergeev Op. 1537-586; Bulkin, V. A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142.
  15. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8; "Put' ez varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, p. 54, no. 292.
  16. Avdusin, D.A., Pushkina, T.A. "Tri pogrebal'nye kamery iz Gnjozdova." Istorija i kul'tura drevnerusskogo goroda. Moscow, 1989, p. 198; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10. Stored in the Department of Archeology of Moscow State University.
  17. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10; Kamenetskaja, E. V. "1991 Zaolynanskaja kurgannaja gruppa Gnjozdova." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, pp. 125-173.
  18. Sizov, V.I. Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR. 1885 (28). St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16, 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. Drevnerusskoe oruzhie (3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus. 9, 1 (no. 9).
  19. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  20. Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshshina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73; Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), p. 80; Dubov, I.V., Sedyx, V.N. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika., Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus 4,5; Sedyh, V. "Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient." Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-2, 4.4.
  21. Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), pp. 80, 84-85.
  22. Zakurina, T. Ju. "Pogrebenie 1 (74) Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI Nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  23. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie: tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1979, pp. 9-62; Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling in the Light of recent Archaeological Excavations. A Preliminary Report." Acta Archaeologica. 1982 (53), Copenhagen, p. 202, illus 14, 25; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' c izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972.
  24. Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kishevich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androschuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123.
  25. France-Lanord, A., Fleury, M. "Das Grab der Arnegundis in Saint-Denis." Germania, 40 (2). Berlin, 1962, pp. 345, 352-353, illus 3, 5, Tables 31, 7.
  26. Hagg, I. "Textilfunde aus der Siedlung und aus den Grabern von Haithabu." Berichte uber die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu. (29), Neumunster, 1991, pp. 244-247, Illus. 123
  27. Eisenschmidt, S. "Kammergraber der Wikingerzeit in Altdanemark." Universitatsforschungen zur Prahistorischen Archaologie. (25) Bonn, 1994, pp. 99-100, 112, 115, 121.
  28. [jeb: missing in original]
  29. Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling...", p. 202, fig. 14, 25.
  30. Geijer, A. "Die Textilfunde aus den Grabern." Birka III. Uppsala, 1938, pp. 97-105.
  31. Hougen, B. "Gulltrad fra Gokstadfunnet." Honos Ella Kivikoski / SMAFFT. (75) Helsinki, 1973, pp. 77, 79, Fig. 5-8.
  32. Krag, A.M. "Frankisch-byzantinische trachteinftasse in drei danischen grabfunden des 10 jahrhunderts." Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 29(3). Mainz, 1999, pp. 425-444.
  33. Bol'shakov, O.G. Srednevekovij gorod Blizhnego Vostoka VII-seredina XIII v.: Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie otnoshenija. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2001, pp. 259-260.