Showing posts with label Russian Language. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Russian Language. Show all posts

Thursday, February 14, 2019

Goldwork Embroidery of Kievan Rus'

"Goldwork Embroidery of Kievan Rus'", a translation of Novitskaja, M.A. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Kievskoj Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1972(33), pp. 42-50.

The article in the original Russian can be found here: 
https://www.dropbox.com/s/0tkjm57wey9zwlu/Novitskaja%20Zolotnaja%20vyshivka.pdf?dl=0&m&fbclid=IwAR2JqKvPpYq08m2JBgA--CxzZ8rddYZNh1ABkJmxN69MAZREQtZnl1FZF4c


Translation by Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL (mka John Beebe)

[Translator's notes: This is a rough translation, although I've done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets are my own. The text contains some specialized vocabulary. I have attempted to translate these, but have also there indicated the original term in transliterated Russian, sometimes with additional notes, in brackets.
]



Goldwork Embroidery of Kievan Rus'

by Maria A. Novitskaja (Kiev)

This article was written by the famous Ukrainian researcher Maria Alekseevna Novitskaya (1896-1965), author of a series of works about medieval embroidery. The text of this article is printed from a copy that was typed by the author herself, provided by M.I. Vjaz'mitnaja.

Since ancient times, embroidery has served a large role in the life of all levels of society, serving to decorate both clothing and the household. It is of great interest to characterize as one of the forms of artistic creativity in different historical periods. 

The fragility of its materials and its poor conservation do not allow us to completely restore the general outline of all forms of embroidery, in particular for the earliest times. All the more valuable, then, are any remnants of embroidery, no matter how small, which have survived the centuries, been preserved to our time, and now emerge from the earth in archeological digs. 

There has not yet been a single study dedicated to goldwork embroidery of Kievan Rus'.(1) There is even an opinion that no works of Kievan Rus' embroidery have survived to our time.(1a) This is explained by the great fragmentation of discovered embroidery and their dispersion throughout multiple museum collections, as well as the dearth of publication.

The goal of this article is to give a short characterization of goldwork embroidery from Kievan Rus' based on Chronicle sources and archeological materials, and where possible, to reconstruct its ornamental composition, and thus to fill the gap which has existed to this day in our literature.

In the time of Kievan Rus', goldwork embroidery flourished in the lives of the feudal elite, and occupied such a significant role in their lives that the Chronicle even considered it necessary to mention these works of decorative art. For example, it emphasizes that during the sack of Putivl' by Izyaslav in 1146(2), "altar cloths"(3) and "church vestments, all sewn with gold" perished. In 1288, while listing the items which Grand Prince Vladimir Vasilyevich decorated churches built at various times, mentions "curtains sewn with gold" in Vladimir, and "veils of expensive fabric embroidered with gold and pearls" in Ljubomil.(4)

We can guess as to the quantity of embroidered examples based on the Chronicle story from 1183 about the fire of the Church of Our Lady of Vladimir, which destroyed "an uncountable number of robes(5) embroidered with gold and pearls which would hang on holidays in two streams from the Golden Gate to Our Lady, and from Our Lady to the master's hall in two brightly colored rows." This distance is more than a kilometer in length.(6)

From the excerpts above, it can be seen that goldwork embroidery was used to decorate both ecclesiastical items and secular clothes; in the second case, expensive embroidery acquired a purpose other than decorative: goldwork on the shoulders, as we know from the Chronicle under 1216, became as sign of belonging to the upper class.(7)

Portraits of the Grand Prince with his family from contemporaneous frescos(8) and miniature paintings(9) show that, in addition to the shoulder embroidery mentioned in the Chronicle, the edges of cloaks, cuffs, belts and hems of ceremonial outfits were also richly decorated.

Goldwork embroidery was also used on leather shoes: Daniil Romanovich, Prince of Galicia, had "boots of green leather, embroidered with gold."(10)

Historic materials also shine light on the question of where goldwork at this time was made, and even mention the historical persons who engaged in embroidery. In the 11th century, Anna-Janka, sister of Vladimir Monomakh and daughter of Grand Prince Vsevolod, having become a nun in the Andreevsky monastery in Kiev established by her father, organized there a school where young girls studied gold and silverwork embroidery.(11) This indicates that nunneries were one type of center of artistic embroidery.

V.I. Tatischev says about a different Anna -- Anna Vsevolodna, wife of Rjurik Rostislavich (1200) -- that she embroidered both for her own family, as well as for the decoration of the Kiev-Vydubitskij Monastery.(12) There is also data that in Greece, at the Ksilurgu Monastery on Mt. Athos in 1143, there were Russian epitrachelia and maniples.(13)

Undoubtedly, the feudal upper class, taking advantage of lower class labor, had artist workshops, for example, the famous court workshop of Grand Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky.(14) It's possible that, in addition to female goldwork embroideresses, these also employed men, especially for leatherworking (e.g., for shoes).

The archeological materials underline and enrich the few Chronicle details about embroidery. For this current work, I have used original works of embroidery located in museum collections,(15) as well as reconstructions from partially preserved examples published in archeological accounts.

These embroidered items come from 13 sources:

  • 19 fragments of embroidery from Kiev itself;
  • 23 from the Kiev region (of these, 5 from Belgorod, 8 from Shargorod, 6 from the village of Ochakov near Nabutovo, 2 from Romashki, 2 from Knjazhaja Gora);
  • 2 from Chernigov and the Chernigov region;
  • 2 from the Zhitomir region (Rajki);
  • 2 from the L'vov region (Starij Galich and Zvenigorod);
  • 2 from the Ternopil region (the village of Zhizhava);
  • 1 from Chersonesus
Table 1
(click to expand)
These items are very poorly preserved, with sizes of fragments ranging from 4 cm to 10-15 cm, or rarely as large as 25-30 cm. They come from, it appears, no fewer than 40 items of clothing. It is not possible to say with certainty exactly from which part of clothing these fragments originate. The archeological finds mention standing collars, belts, ribbons, and headbands. The fragments predominantly appear to be bands with widths from 1-5.5 cm.

All of the embroidery mentioned above was done on silk fabric of various colors.(16) The ornamentation on these colored surfaces was embroidered with gold and silver wrapped(17) threads (in one case, with wound metallic wire).(18)  

Almost all of the items we studied were worked in the "pierced" style ["v prikep"]. This method's peculiarity is that the metallic thread, whether wrapped [such as Japan gold] or drawn out [like a wire] is sewn through the fabric. On the front [obverse] side of the work, a stitch is obtained of about 7 mm in length (table I, illus. 1), and on the back [reverse], almost equal to the width of the thread (table I, illus. 2). On the obverse, each new row falls tightly, one after the next, such that each stitch begins in the middle of the previous one. This achieves a solid, almost "wrought" effect. The effect of the metallic brilliance and play of color was intensified by differing the direction of the stitches: the artisan arranged them in parallel rows (table I, illus. 4), or along the curve, following the shape of the picture [in Russian, called "shov po forme"] (table I, illus. 5 - fleurs-de-lys). For stems and narrow strips, they would also use stem stitch ["shov po jolochku"] (table I, illus. 5 - latticework). Enriched color combinations could be achieved by the artist sewing all details of the work, or by leaving the area between ornamental motifs unembroidered. For example, two embroidered items (table I, illus. 3, 4) from the crypt of the Church of the Tithes in Kiev(19), we can see how differently the triangles appear when they are completely filled with gold stitches, versus the colored triangles which are only outlined in gold. This difference can also be seen in the treatment of the stems. 


Table II
(click to expand)
In the studied embroideries, we encounter geometric, floral and zoomorphic designs. The most common of these is geometric (table II), composed from all sorts of circles, rings, rosettes, triangles, swastikas, crosses, and S-shaped whorls.(20) Braided motifs predominate, and were very common and characteristic for this time. From particular motifs of braids, formed by bent and intertwined stripes, we can see figure eights, triangles, rhombi with braids in the corners, and more complex rosettes with overlapping figure eights, rhombi enclosed in a circle, et. al. (table II, illus. 14-19).

Floral designs are found less frequently, and have a stylized character (table III). Their main elements are triangular, heart-shaped, or elongated leaflets, round or square flower buds, spiral sprouts on straight or curved stems, and fleurs-de-lis(21), a favorite element in decorative art in medieval Rus' (table III, illus. 7).


A motif reminiscent of a wide-bladed leaf of a water lily, from the base of which grows a fleur-de-lis, filling in its surface, was very wide-spread in different forms of decorative art of the 11th-12th centuries. It was particularly frequently found on kolts(22) and on fresco paintings, for example, in Kiev's St. Sophia cathedral. There are two variants of this motif on our embroidered items: on a 11-12th century item from Belgorod(23)(table III, illus. 8), and on an embroidery from Chernigov(23)(table III, illus. 9).

Table III
(click to expand)
On an 11th-12th century embroidered item from Shargorod(25) we see a tree of life (table III, illus. 13) - a motif which comes from ancient times. In its interpretation, it is very similar to an analogous depiction on an embroidery from the Churkinskij burial mound from 12-13th century Nizhny Novgorod.(26)

On several fragments from the Mikhailov treasure(27), fragments of a complicated floral motif are preserved: thin, symmetrical shoots branch off from either side of a tall, spear-shaped stem. The lower part is enclosed in a keeled archway. In some cases, these motifs are united in pairs (table III, illus. 14) Another floral motif on an 11-12th century embroidery from Shargorod(28), which arises from a triangle, is made up of plump twisting curls (table III, illus. 15).

Zoomorphic ornament, in the form of birds and cheetahs, are seen only on 2 embroideries (table IV). Several miniature birds, filled in with gimp, are depicted on an 11-12th century embroidery from Shargorod(29). They are placed in diamonds, part of which are filled in with rosettes. The birds are embroidered in profile, sometimes with their heads turned back over their bodies. One wing is raised aloft. Sometimes, it ends in a curl. Similar depictions of birds were a favorite motif in 11-12th century ornament. 

We see analogies to this in an 11th century Kievan manuscript of the words of Grigorij Bogoslov(30), on the cover of the Juriev Gospel from 1120(31), on a 12th century bronze ark from the city of Vschizh by Master Constantine(32), on the cover of a 12-13th century gospel(33), on kolts and bracelets from the treasure cache found in 1824 in the Mikhailov monastery in Kiev(34), on bracelets from the Vladimir treasure cache(35), on the reliefs on a church in Pokrov on the Nerli, 1165(36), on St. Dmitrij Cathedral in Vladimir, 1193-1197(37), on St. Grigorij Cathedral in Juriev-Polskij, 1230-1234(38), et. al. 

Table IV
(click to expand)
The depiction of a bird very similar to ours is also seen on a 12th century embroidery from Vladimir on the Kljazma(39), and on a band from Staraja Rjazan', where the birds stand alongside sacred trees.(40)

Cheetahs form an integral part of a complex knotwork found in one of the 11-12th century graves from Belgorod(41), on the chest of the deceased. Rising sharply on either side of a fleur-de-lis growing from the knotwork, they give the entire composition a heraldic appearance. The cheetahs have small, upright ears, slightly open mouths, long, thin necks, and curved tips at the ends of their tails (table IV, illus. 2). We were unable to find an exact analogy of this motif in manuscript illumination, nor in carving, where the teratological style was particularly widespread(41a)

The composition of ornament depended on the form and size of that part of the clothing for which the embroidery was intended. Most frequently, as has already been stated, this was bands for edging cloaks and the hems of clothing, belts, for women's headbands, and as bands of trim; more rarely - as embroidery on chests or shoulders. 

Fragments of embroidery from Chernigov(42) allows us to reconstruct two compositions of identical motifs, intended for two details on clothing: one in the form of a square, and one of an elongated rectangle. The square embroidery has a centralized composition. It is made up of four identical motifs oriented toward the center (table V, illus. 1). A symmetrical arrangement of the same motif forms an elongated rectangle (table V, illus. 2).

An example of an unending motif which could be repeated infinitely in any direction (table V, illus. 3) is a latticework composition of an embroidery from Romashki(43). Fleurs-de-lis, embroidered along the shape of the design, are enclosed in diamonds, which are filled out in stem stitch. We find an analogous composition on the clothing of Tsar Nikifor and Tsaritsa Maria in a manuscript compilation of works by Ioann Zlatoust (1078-1081)(44) and in the ornament of the Miscellany of Svjatoslav of 1073(45).

Two types of composition are used for embroidery on bands of different lengths and widths. The principal difference between these lies in that the first type is made up of repeated, separate motifs or elements; in the second, a continuous unending ornament. 

Table V
(click to expand)
The first type of composition is simpler and more common. Its elements are placed either at a given distance from each other (table VI, illus. 1) or immediately next to each other (table VI, illus. 3), sometimes almost merging in their contours (table VI, illus. 7). Non-contiguous elements sometimes are sometimes framed, for example, in a 10th century embroidery from the Troitskiy burial mound in Chernigovschina(46) (table VI, illus. 2). Free space above or below between contiguous elements are often filled with dots, circles, triangles, et.al. (table VI, illus. 4-5). An embroidery from the village of Ochakovo(47), bordered with a simple braid (table VI, illus. 6), represents a relatively complex example of this variant. A particularly complicated variant of this composition is seen in illus. 7 (table VI), an embroidery from Ochakovo(48), where the contours of the framing around the crosses, interlaced figure eights, turn into a braid. This embroidery is like an intermediate link between the first and second types under consideration.

The second type of composition has 3 variants. The first is formed from wavy lines with with symmetrical shoots emerging above and below. The second is composed with the aid of broken, crossing and relatively wide bands. The third is a typical unending braid. 

As an example of the first variant of this type, we have the embroidery of two headbands. One of these was found on the head of a young woman in a 12th century grave from Starij Galich(49). The band is 2.6 cm wide and 31 cm long. The second headband comes from a treasure hoard found in 1904 in the Mikhailovsky monastery in Kiev(50). On the first headband, all lines of the design are done in solid, gold lines (table VII, illus. 1) with strokes of silk thread; the second (table VII, illus. 2) has only the outlines of the design, decorated with hemispheres, are drawn.

Table VI
(click to expand)
Analogous compositions of ornament were widespread on various forms of decorative artwork of the same time, for example, in the Nedel'nij (Arkhangelsk) Gospel found in 1902(51), on silver bracelets(52), on the clothing of Novgorod Prince Jaroslav (see the fresco in the Savior Church on the Nereditsa)(53), and finally, on Varlaam Khutyn's embroidered cuffs from the 12th century.(54)

As examples of the second variant of this type, we have two embroideries. The first is a 11-12th century item from Shargorod (table IV). Its diamonds are formed by two rows of intertwined bands which bend at an angle above and below. A second embroidery from the village of Zhezhavy(55), which according to archeological data dates to 900-1100. This item, as an exception to the norm, is overside couched(56). Its diamonds are formed by wide, ornamented bands (table VII, illus. 3); rosettes are placed on the edges of the diamonds. A significantly simplified analogy to this embroidery is found on an embroidery from Staraja Rjazan'(57)

The third variant is made from various kinds of interwoven, narrow, wavy "bands". For this type, it's necessary to note that in all cases, even when the braids were extremely complex, the artisan always carefully delineated each of the bands. The simplest braids are composed of an endless row of united circles or ovals, sometimes joined by knots. The most complex are enriched by additional motifs of braids and straight broken lines. 


Tables VII and VIII
On the embroidered item from Shargorod(58), part of the ornament is woven into square frames (table VIII, illus. 3), thanks to which, despite the continuity of the braid, it achieves a repetition of two different motifs. A detailed study of a poorly preserved fragment of embroidery, also from Shargorod(59), made it possible to reconstruct the relatively complex composition of its design (table VIII, illus. 4).

A 12th century embroidery from Chersonesus (table IX) has a relatively complex design. Its "bands" in an unending braid create several different ornamental motifs, between which are located rosettes from 2 interlaced figure eights. In addition, this wide band is framed above and below by a narrow border, the pattern of which is turned to one side. This embroidery, like the one from Zhezhavy, is also overside couched, and has the metallic thread laid not along the length of the design, but across its width; it passes back and forth from one edge to the other, where it is couched to the fabric.

Summarizing what has been said, it follows to note that the earliest of the embroideries we've looked at was dated to the 10th century, and the latest to the 13th. Later data are tied to the sack by the Tatar invasion of the same villages from which some of the embroideries we have studied originated. It's nearly impossible to date these items any more precisely.


Table IX
As has been said, nearly all the works were embroidered in the "pierced" manner [with the gold thread passing through the fabric], and only two using couching: one from Chersonesus, and the other from Zhezhavy in the Ternopolskij region. The "pierced" technique is similar to that used for embroidery with silk thread, but is inconvenient because it is difficult to pull the gold thread through the fabric without damaging it.

The German researcher M. Dreger, characterizing the technique of goldwork throughout the Middle Ages, emphasizes that almost all older northern goldwork was done using the "pierced" technique, while southern lands, such as Byzantium, typically used the couching technique. This commonality in the use of the "piercing" technique in Kievan Rus' and northern countries is quite naturally tied to the close relations Kievan Rus' had with Norway, Germany, France, and other lands, particularly through the female line. For example, Jaroslav the Wise was married to the daughter of Norwegian king Olaf, Ingegerd, and his sons to representatives of the German feudal aristocracy.

Thanks to permanent trade and military ties between Kievan Rus' and Byzantium, embroidery items were brought from there, along with luxurious fabrics. It is possible that the embroidery from Zhezhavy, and especially that from Chersonesus with the more complex designs and worked in couching, were likely works of Byzantine artisans.

As for the remaining items of embroidery, there is no reason to think that they were imported, as Russian women were famed for their goldwork embroidery. It is no wonder that the Chronicles mention them.

The embroideresses of Medieval Rus' skillfully and tastefully used various geometric, floral and zoomorphic motifs in their compositions, frequently preserving remnants of ancient symbols and motifs, such as swastikas, posettes, the tree of life, and heraldic  zoomorphic compositions. Geometric and strongly stylized floral ornament plays a large role, in particular the fleur-de-lis design.

Compositional schemes of embroidery obey the part of clothing that they were intended for. The rhythm of composition, always clear and crisp, could be based on smooth or uniformly rising and falling wavy lines, or on endlessly twisting braids. 

As a combination of the colored base fabric with gold or silver designs, sometimes emphasized by threads of colored silk or pearls, goldwork embroidery completely satisfied the medieval Russian artist's need for color and contrast. 

The examples of ornament presented here testify to the generality of embroidery techniques, as well as the particular character of ornament in different artistic centers of medieval Rus': Kiev, Chernigov, L'vov, Vladimir on the Kljazma, Novgorod, Staraja Rjazan', Nizhnij Novgorod, and other cities. Aside from this, the analogies presented here speak to the unity of ornamental style in embroidery and other different techniques of decorative art of medieval Rus'.

Notes

(1) {M.A. Novitskaja's articles "Haptuvannja v Kyiv'skij Rusi. (Za materialamy rozkopok na terytorii URSR)." Arkhelogija XVIII, Kiev, 1965, pp. 24-38 and "Dav'norus'ke haptuvannja z figurymy zobrazhennjamy." Arkheologija XXIV, Kiev, 1970, pp. 88-99, were published posthumously.}  This and later notes in curly braces were made by V.G. Putsko, who prepared this article for publication.
(1a) Lazarev, V.N. Iskusstvo Novgoroda. Moscow/Leningrad, 1947, p. 129.
(2) --. Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisej [PSRL]. Vol 2, Issue 3. St. Petersburg, 1843, p. 27.
(3) Embroidered fabric which decorated the Holy Throne or Altar.
(4) PSRL, Vol 2, Issue 3, p. 223.
(5) ibid., p. 127. Porty. Secular clothing were often seen in churches, as it was custom for princes to donate them to the church "in their own memory". PSRL, Book 1, Issue 2, pp. 418, 463.
(6) --. Russkie drevnosti v pamjatnikakh iskusstva. Issue VI. St. Petersburg, 1890, p. 91. {In the opinion of N.N. Voronin, the Chronicle is referring to the northern "golden gate" and the southern gate of the cathedral doors, between which in two "wonderous rows" were suspended the fabrics of the cathedral sacristy. Voronin, N.N. Vladimir, Bogoljubovo, Suzdal', Juriev-Pol'skoj. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965, p. 47.}
(7) PSRL, Vol. 1, Issue 3, p. 445.
(8) Kresal'nyj, M.I. Sofijskij zapovednik v Kieve. Kiev, 1960, illus. 102, 103. {Lazarev, V.N. "Gruppovoj portret semejstva Jaroslava." Russkaja srednevekovaja zhivopis'. Moscow, 1970, pp. 27-54.}
(9) Bobrinskij, A. Kievskie miniatjury XI v. i portret knjazja Jaroslava Izjaslavicha v psaltyre Egberta, arkhiepiskopa Trirskogo. St. Petersburg, 1902, pp. 11, 12, 15. {Lazarev, V.N. "Iskusstvo srednevekovoj Rusi i Zapad (XI-XV vv.)" XIII Mezhdunarodnyj kongress istoricheskikh nauk. Moscow, 1970, pp. 29-31, with lit. on p. 60; Logvin, G.N. "Miniatjury drevn'ogo kodeksu." Misetstvo, 1966(6), pp. 14-19.}
(10) PSRL, Vol. 1, Issue 3, p. 187.
(11) Gerebtzoff, N. Essei sur l'histoire de la civilisation Russe. Paris, 1858, p. 124; Odobesko, A.I. "Vosdukh s vyshitym izobrazheniem polozhenija spasitelja vo grob." Drevnosti Trudy Moskovskogo Arkheologicheskogo Obschestva, vol 4, Moscow, 1874, p. 7; Lazarev, V.N. Iskusstva Novgoroda. p. 129; {Svirin, A.N. Drevnerusskoe shit'jo. Moscow, 1963, p. 21.}
(12) Tatischev, V.I. Istorija Rossijskaja s samykh drevnejshikh vremen. Vol. 3, St. Petersburg, 1774, p. 329; Lazarev, V.N. Iskusstvo Novgoroda, p. 127.
(13) Lazarev, V.N. Iskusstvo Novgoroda, p. 127.
(14) Georgievskij, V.T. "Drevnerusskoe shit'jo v riznitse Troitse-Sergievoj Lavry." Svetil'nik.  1914(11-12), p. 5.
(15) State Historical Museum in Moscow, State Historical Museum in Kiev, Historical Museum in L'vov, Cherigov Historical Museum, Historical-Archeological Museum in Khersonesus. 
(16) The color of the silk has been lost; it has all taken on a murky-brown color.
(17) It is made from thin, narrow (around 0.3 mm) rows of metal, tightly wrapped around a core thread. [cf. modern "Japan gold" thread]
(18) Spirally-twisted flat wire. [Gimp, or possibly perl.]
(19) Karger, M.K. Arkheologicheskoe issledovanie drevnego Kieva. Kiev, 1950, illus. 95.
(20) See Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady, Vol. 1, St. Petersburg, 1896, p. 66.
(21) Lily of the field is a motif which came from the East.
(22) Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady, Vol. 1, pp. 59, 60; Istorija russkogo iskusstva, vol. 1, Moscow, 1953, p. 271.
(23) State Historical Museum in Kiev, inv. no. V-1783; See Polonskaja, N.D. Istoriko-kul'turnyj atlas po russkoj istorii. Kiev, 1913, table XV, illus. 12; Polonskaja, N.D. "Arkheologicheskie raskopki V.V. Khvojko 1909-10 gg. v mestechke Belgorodka." Trudy predvaritel'nogo komiteta XV arkheologicheskogo s'ezda. Moscow, 1911, illus. 53.
(24) Historical museum in Chernigov.
(25) State Historical Museum in Kiev, inv. no. V-2651.
(26) Spytsin, A. "Churkinskij mogil'nik." Zapiski otdelija russkoj i slavjanskoj arkheologii imperatorskogo Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo obschestva. Vol. 5, issue 1, illus 71.
(27) State Historical Museum in Moscow, OP-1093. See: --. Otchet Arkheologicheskoj Komissii, 1903, illus. 350.
(28) State Historical Museum in Kiev, Inv. no. 1381.
(29) ibid., inv. no. V-2310.
(30) Stasov, V.V. Slavjanskij i vostochnij ornament po rukopisjam drevnego i novogo vremeni. St. Petersburg, 1886, table XII, illus. 19, 27.
(31) ibid., table LIII.
(32) Rybakov, B.A. Remeslo drevnej Rusi. Moscow, 1948, illus. 56.
(33) Buslaev, F.I. Istoricheskij ocherk po russkomu ornamentu v rukopisjakh. Petrograd, 1917, p. 4 (illus 3), 22 (illus. 30); Stasov, V.V. Russkij narodnyj ornament. Issue 1, St. Petersburg, 1872, p. IX.
(34) Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady. Table 1, illus 59, 60; --. Istorija russkogo iskusstva. Vol 1, p. 250.
(35) --. Istorija kul'tury Drevnej Rusi. vol 2. Moscow/Leningrad, 1951, illus. 213.
(36) --. Istorija russkogo iskusstva. Vol. 1, pp. 405, 411, 413, 439.
(37) {Varger, G.K. Skul'ptura Drevnej Rusi. Vladimir, Bogoljubovo. Moscow, 1969, pp. 288, 290, illus. 217.}
(38) {Bobrinskij, A.A. Reznoj kamen' v Rossii. Issue 1, Moscow, 1916, table 30, illus. 9.}
(39) Guschin, A.S. Pamjatniki khudozhestvennogo remesla drevnej Rusi X-XIII vv. Moscow/Leningrad, 1936, illus. on p. 29.
(40) Jakunina, L.I. "Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani." Kratkie soobschenvenija Instituta istorii materialnoj kul'tury. 1947 (XXI), illus. 36/3.
(41) State Historical Museum in Kiev, inv. no. V-1783. See: Trudy predvaritel'nogo komiteta XV arkheologicheskogo s'ezda, table XV, illus. 13.
(41a) {See: Kolchin, B.A. Novgorodskie drevnosti. Reznoe derevo. Moscow, 1971.}
(42) Historical Museum in Chernigov.
(43) State Historical Museum in Kiev, inv. no. V-2263.
(44) Lazarev, V.N. Istorija vizantijskoj zhivopisi. Vol. 2. Moscow, 1948, tables 138, 139.
(45) Istorija russkogo iskusstva. Vol. 1, p. 103.
(46) State Historical Museum in Moscow, exposition of the Department of Feudalism.
(47) Geze, V.S. "Raskopki na gorodische 'Ochakov' u derevni Nabutovo." Arkheologicheskaja letopis' Juzhnoj Rossii. 1904 (3), illus. 5.
(48) Spitsyn, A.A. "Nabutovskij mogil'nik." Zapiski otdela russkoj i slavjanskoj arkheologii imperatorskovo Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo obschestva. Vol. II, illus. 101.
(49) Pasternak, Ja. Starij Galich. Krakiv-L'viv. 1944, illus. 45. Located in the historical museum in Lvov.
(50) State Historical Museum in Moscow, OP-1091, no. 71. See: Archelogicheskaja letopis' Juzhnoj Rusi, 1903, table XVI, Illus. 3. Otchet Arkheologicheskoj komissii, 1903, illus. 350.
(51) Stasov, V.V. Slavjanskij i vostochnij ornament. Table CXXIV.
(52) Kondakov, N.P. Russkie klady. Vol. 1, illus. 89; Istorija russkogo iskusstva. Vol. 1, p. 272.
(53) Prokhorov, V. Russkie drevnosti. Issue IV, St. Petersburg, 1871, p. 44.
(54) Novgorod Historical-Archeological Museum-Reserve, inv. no. 1624. {Svirin, A.N. Ukaz. soch. Table XXIX, illus. 6.}
(58) State Historical Museum in Kiev, inv. no. V-2653.
(59) ibid., inv. no. S-57122.
(60) Chersonesus Historic-Archeological Museum, inv. no. 6292.
(61) Dreger, M. Künstlerische Entwicklung der Weberei und Stickerei. Vienna, 1904, p. 199.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

"Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery", a translation of Mikhajlov, K.A. "Rannie Obraztsy Drevnerusskogo Zolotnogo Shit'ja.Novgorod i Novgorodskaja Zemlja. Istorija i arkheologia: Materialy nauchoj konferensii. Issue 21. Novgorod, 2007.

The article in the original Russian can be found here: 

http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusNovgorod/163.htm


Translation by Ivan Matfeevich Rezansky, OL (mka John Beebe)

[Translator's notes: This is a rough translation, although I've done my best to convey both the meaning and style from the original. Comments in square brackets are my own. The text contains some specialized vocabulary. I have attempted to translate these, but have also there indicated the original term in transliterated Russian, sometimes with additional notes, in brackets. The original black and white images from the article have been included as well so as to translate the captions. The original article I'm translating from appears to have been processed by an optical character recognition software that was not always accurate, especially when attempting to process bibliographic data in Ukrainian. I've done my best to parse these into something that makes sense.]



Early Examples of Medieval Russian Goldwork Embroidery

by K. A. Mikhajlov

One of the new and high-status categories of finds at the Rjurik Gorodische near Velikij Novgorod was the discovery of clusters of gold threads which once decorated a medieval Rus' ceremonial outfit. The collars and sometimes the cuffs or "poruch'i" of medieval Russian clothing were decorated with golden treads or gold foil [bit'] (1); they decorated liturgical vestments of the archbishops of the Orthodox church and ceremonial vestments of the medieval Rus' aristocracy. After the large-scale archaeological studies of the 20th century, finds of goldwork embroidery became a common occurrence during the excavations of medieval Russian monuments. Especially often, colors embroidered with golden threads are found during work on medieval Russian burial sites of the 12th-13th centuries. It is possible assume that a find from 2001 was only one of many along these lines (Appendix II, number 24). The unique quality of the Gorodische find is tied to the context of its location. Two clusters of gold foil fragments were found in 2001 during the excavation of the upper layers of an ancient moat on the southern edge of Gorodische hill; the first was found with the contents of a log house. The foil was a tangle of yellow metallic threads, unaffected by corrosion. Its threads were likely made from strips of foil wound around an organic base thread, most likely silk, which has not survived to our time (illus. 1) [jeb: sic. For some reason, illustration 1 is not included in the article]. The width of the thread was around 0.3 mm. Nearby finds allow us to date the finds in this layer to the second half of the 12th century (2). Until now, gold embroidery was rarely found in an urban layer, least of all in the dated complex. It seems to me that the circumstances of this Gorodische find give reason once again to review the entire category of related decoration of costume throughout the territory of Medieval Rus'.


Several technological methods were practiced for the manufacture of golden thread in the Middle Ages. They were made from metallic foil (silver, gold, or gilt-silver) of a width of around 0.2-0.5 mm, or were were made from wire with a round cross-section, wound around an organic base (illus. 2-3). Most often, they were wound onto dyed silk or linen thread. This technology is characteristic for the early medieval time and is frequently recorded among finds in Gnjozdovo, Shestaviste, Pskov, Rjurik Gorodische, and Timerevo. Thus far only one unusual example from Gnjozdovo is an exception from this, which demonstrates a particular technique: it turned out to be a gold amalgam, wrapped around a silk thread wound together with the serous membrane of an animal's intestine. According to M.V. Fekhner, technically analogous manufacture of fabric thread are found in a burial mound near the village of Rossavy and in the tomb of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij in Vladimir (3). The researcher believed that Spain may have been a place of manufacture for such silks. But, exactly the same technique was used to manufacture threads in China, and even, it seems, in Byzantium. For example, threads made from animal intestine and covered in gold amalgam were found in the tomb of Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan, dated to the beginning of the 13th century (4). Otto von Falck, a German scholar of medieval textiles, proposed that the manufacture of golden threads from animal intestine began to spread within Byzantium only in the 11th century. The find from the Gorodische layer, on the other hand, belongs to the same large-scale technological group as threads with foil wound on a silk base. Judging by the number of threads, the find may turn out to be the remains of an embroidered collar. 



2. Diagram of a gold thread from a round wire,
wrapped around a silk core.


3. Diagram of a gold thread from foil,
wrapped around a silk core.

Goldwork embroidery, decorating medieval Russian church vestments and secular ceremonial outfits, has long been one of the highlights of medieval Rus' culture. Dozens of examples of medieval Russian goldwork are preserved in the collections of domestic museums. Numerous works by researchers introduce new examples to science (5). Mainly, this font of finds is replenished by archaeologists during studies of medieval Rus' necropolises. Until recently, the most detailed archaeological finds of the medieval Rus' period were described in the works of M.V. Fekhner, M.A. Saburova, A.K. Elkina, M.O. Novitskaja, et. al. According to M.V. Fekhner's count in the 1970's, the State Historical Museum's collection alone contained no fewer than 63 exemplars of medieval Rus' ribbons and collars embroidered with goldwork. Subsequently, that researcher has already written about another 73 fragments of goldwork embroidery (6). Of these, 37 originate from burials in medieval Russian burial mounds from the 12th-13th centuries (7).

By my count, at the current moment, no fewer than 70 geographical points are reflected in the literature and archeological reports, from which more than 155 examples of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery from the 10th-13th centuries have been found. (Appendices 1-2) (8) In addition to the published finds of known origin, items are preserved in museum collections from collections without provenance [depaspartizovannye]. For example, there are no fewer than 7 examples of goldwork embroidery in the archeological collections of the Hermitage museum (OAVES); no fewer than 22 fragments in the Tarnovskij Chernihiv museum; in the department of archeological collections in the Ukraine National History Museum, around 18 examples of pre-Mongol goldwork embroidery from archeological digs (9). A significant portion of these are without documentation. New finds are also emerging from contemporaneous digs in Belgorod, Perejaslavl'-Khmel'nitskij, Chernihiv, Dmitrov, and Velikij Novgorod. It is difficult to arrive at an exact count of fragments, as one and the same item may be broken up into several items in a museum collection, and far from all of them may be published (10).


Despite the large number of finds of goldwork embroidery, the earliest examples of this form remain the most rare. For a long time, a find from the Chernihiv "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave [Chjornaja mogila], which dates to the second half of the 10th century, was considered to be one of the earliest examples of medieval goldwork. Many scholars note that fabric decorated with gold embroidery are distributed in medieval Russian graves no earlier than the 11th-12th centuries. It follows that the embroidery example from the Black Grave precedes the majority of similar finds by almost a century. Against the backdrop of the majority of much later examples of goldwork embroidery, it appears to be a rare example, not related to the later medieval Russian tradition of embroidery. But, is this a true statement?


In addition to 64 sites where medieval Russian embroidery was found from the late 11th-16th centuries, I became aware of 15 finds of 10th century goldwork embroidery made from foil and spun [drotovaja], round-in-cross-section wire, made from non-corroded yellow metal (appendix 1). I have not studied wire from white metal (silver). The earliest finds of golden threads come from graveyards: Gnjozdovo, Timerevo, Chernihiv, and Pskov. These finds are few in number, and tied to the area around early "warrior" graves from medieval Rus'. 


For example, gold thread was found in 7 burial complexes in the graveyard of Gnjozdovo. Of these, 6 belong to one and the same type of funerary rite: the burial chamber. For example, in a burial from mound TS-301, archeologists from Moscow State University discovered fabric woven from golden threads, sewn together from several lengths of silk 39-40 cm in width. Based on its characteristic weave, the fabric can be classified as "sammit" or samite (samitum). In the grave, the fabric lay alongside other remnants of clothing in a separately standing birch barrel. From complex no. 97, which represents a collection from engineer S.I. Sergeeva from several funerary complexes, come three fragments of gold threads (14). The threads were made from foil, wrapped around an unpreserved organic core. Judging from what has been preserved, the fragments of thread can be attributed to embroidery on a ribbon or lace. In a chamber from burial mound TS-198, the braid on a deceased woman's headband or headscarf was sewn with gold thread (15). According to the researcher's opinion, golden thread found in burial mound Dn-1 decorated a knotted braid which was sewn to a male kaftan with brass, mushroom-shaped buttons (16). There are references to fragments of gold thread found in Gnjozdovo burial mounds Ol'-30 nad Pol'-76 (17). A second find of gold thread, from a cremation, was tied to the large "royal" burial mound from V.I. Sizov's dig. In previous publications, a trace of gold was noted on the plates of the helm found in the burial mound. Careful study showed this trace to be gold thread made from wrapped spiral foil which fused to the helmet on the funerary pyre. Judging from the preserved fragments with three threads, each about 1.5cm long, lying parallel to each other, they decorated a ribbon or braid from the deceased's upper, ceremonial clothing. Most likely, on the funerary pyre, a part of the clothing from the inventory became pressed against the helmet. As a result, a fragment of the embroidery fused to the dome of the helmet and was mistaken as part of its ornamentation (18). An analogous find was made in Chernihiv. There, embroidery with gold threads decorated the clothing of a man buried in the great "royal" burial mound, the Black Grave. Judging by the superb preservation of the Chernihiv fabric, it was placed in the grave onto an already extinguished funerary pyre (19).


After Gnjozdov, the most respectable collection of goldwork embroidery is represented by five burials at the medieval Russian burial site in Timerjovo. Fragments of thread from yellow metal were found in cremation remains in mounds No. 285, 295, 297, 348, and 382 (20). In burial mound no. 382. a yellow wire was found which formed part of a braid on a set of sleeve cuffs. In the same grave, fragments of ornamentation from the collar of outer clothing were found, made from wire wound around an organic base, as well as a round button made from the same material. The wire was round in cross-section, about 0.3-0.5 mm. In burial mound number 385, researchers found fragments of wire that adorned the braid on the deceased's outfit. N.G. Nedoshivina and M.V. Fekhner mention grave finds of braid with silk and metal threads in burial mounds no. 263-P, 422, and 424 (21). Silk braid with gold threads decorated not only the hem of the sleeves and the collar of the outfit, but also the edges of the womens' headscarves. For example, a headscarf from burial mound no. 348 was decorated with woven gold threads. 

Most likely, fragments of gold foil from Pskov can be attributed to the same group of exmaples of early Russian goldwork embroidery. They come from burial site No. 1 (74) from the Trupekhovskovo I dig. This burial belongs to the oldest Pskov necropolis and dates to the late 10th-early 11th century. Judging by the significant number of threads (yellow metal foil wrapped around an organic core) and their location on the skeleton of the deceased male, a significant portion of the clothing was decorated with embroidery (22). This is a relatively rare example, as typically gold embroidery decorated narrow stripes on the collar and sleeves. Rare examples of ceremonial finds with similar embroidery are associated to prestigious aristocratic burials from a chamber in Jelling (Denmark), with burials in the Black Grave burial mound, and the burials of Prince Andrej Bogoljubskij and Bulgarian ruler Kolojan (23).

To the number of the earliest examples of goldwork, we can also add remnants of brocade and embroidery from a headscarf from Kiev burial no. 123. This funerary chamber with an inhumed female was found near the walls of the Church of the Tithes in Kiev. A necklace, with carnelian and hollow silver beads with sculpted ornamentation, an Arabian silver coin, and a characteristic funerary rite allow us to date this to the second half to late 10th century (24).


Since M.V. Fekhner's publication, the circle of early examples of goldwork embroidery and analogous finds has expanded somewhat. We know that many male and female medieval Russian costumes in the 10th century were decorated with silk braid with metal threads. The majority of these turned out to be silver. But, a small number of these embroideries were decorated with threads made from gold. The majority of these threads were made from silk, wrapped with thin gold foil. These early finds are associated with burial grounds in Chernihiv, Gnjozdovo, Pskov, and the Rjurikovo hillfort. In all there have been 15 finds originating from the 10th century.


Analogies and origin: In the era of the early middle ages, the Franks were one of the first cultures to make use of golden thread as decoration on formal clothing. The most famous finds were related to the royal tombs of the royal Merovingian dynasty in the cathedrals of St. Denis in Paris and Cologne. Here, goldwork embroidery was found in the tombs of high-born women, apparently relatives of the royal family. In the first burial, gimp thread and embroidery decorated decorated the sleeves of the silk tunic of Queen Arnegund; in the second, the forehead area of a headscarf or veil of an unnamed female buried in the royal tomb (25). Following the Merovingians, one of the earliest finds of metallic braid are the Anglo-Saxon braids with gold threads from 6th-7th century grave sites. An example is the 9-mm wide braid from a barrow in Buckinghamshire [iz kurpsha Tegagov Barrou v Bekingemsshire]. According to M. Mueller-Ville and an entire line of other researchers, the Vendel burial sites and the make-up of the funerary inventories of royal burials in Skandinavia, Anglo-Saxon Britain and the continent are closely related. This is visible in both the armament [?] and the style of ornament that decorated precious objects and household utensils, as well as the funeral outfit. Most likely, the barbaric nobility copied Roman styles of embroidery and ornament, then later the Byzantine empire, where extensive examples of fabric decorated with golden threads were widespread.


The next blossoming of gold and silver embroidery in Northern Europe was tied to the Viking era. Finds of gold braid, for the most part, are tied to inventories from burials in Denmark and central Sweden. First of all, in Hedeby, the largest trade center of Jutland, a braid made only of gold thread was found in 3 female graves from the mid-10th century. This was found in burial chambers no. 188 (1960), 2 (1963) and 5 (1964) from the Südebrarup burial ground, located south of the city wall. In two of these, the braid was from 63 to 80 cm long and 1.2 cm wide, with the threads themselves 0.2 and 0.5-0.8 mm wide (26). In other parts of Denmark, golden threads decorating clothing were found in female grave number 4 from the Fürkart burial ground (2nd half of the 10th century), in a chamber from Hvelinghyo (second half of the 10th century), in a grave from the first half of the 10th century, in a burial mound in Ladby, and in a burial chamber under a church in Jelling (second half of the 10th century) (27). In the latter burial, golden thread decorated the entire outerwear of a male buried in a chamber. Archeologists uncovered more than 500 fragments of golden spiral fragments found throughout the entire area of the chamber (28). Similar golden threads decorated details of the clothing of a male buried in a chamber in Mammen (970-971). Of the eight graves listed above, two -- Jelling and Ladby -- are considered to be graves of members of the highest nobility, members of the royal house.


In the Scandinavian Viking era, the most significant number of burials with golden thread were found in the Swedish burial ground of Birka, where in 16 chambers, golden thread was used in braid, gimp, embroideries, and various decoration of clothing (burial sites no. 524, 542, 551, 557, 561, 643, 644, 731, 735, 736, 750, 791, 824, 832, and 844) (29). Decoration from golden thread was found in the burial complex of the Skopintul mound near Adelsho. Braid made from gold and, it appears, silken threads was discovered in the inventory from the royal mound in Gokstad, Norway (30).


Anna Krog believes that this massive and simultaneous distribution of goldwork embroidery and imported fabrics across the territory of the Danish state was tied to political events of the second half of the 10th century. Under King Harald Bluetooth and his successors, Denmark was baptized and its elite had a powerful cultural impact upon the empire. Through the Ottonian court, Byzantine cultural influences spread to the Scandinavian region. Ceremonial court clothing with embroidery and braid from gold thread appears, per A. Krog, tied to the spread of Christianity (31). It should be noted that in a number of female burials with golden thread, traditional Scandinavian upperwear with metal fibulae tend to disappear. It is replaced by a long cape embroidered at the edges with gold braid. A cape with similar braid was also found in a male burial in Mammen. It is interesting to note that the first finds of medieval Russian goldwork embroidery recall the Scandinavian finds mentioned above. They were found in two large burial mounds (the burial rites of which were, of course, related to Northern Europe and the high social status of those buried) and in eight burial chambers, monuments similar to the burial sites in Denmark and Birka.


According to M.V. Fekhner, the majority of silk fabrics were brought to the lands of Rus' from Byzantium or Spain. Indeed, the majority of medieval Russian headbands, collars, cuffs and capes decorated with gold thread may well have been imported. At the same time, many researchers believe that the significant number of goldwork embroidered items were the product of local, medieval Rus' expert needleworkers. This idea was based, for example, on a mention in a chronicle about the opening of a school for teaching goldwork embroidery in Kiev in 1086; 12th century contributions to a monastery on Mt. Athos with Russian embroidery; and several technological features of medieval Russian embroidery.


From the late 10th-early 11th century, threads of gold alloyed with silver, wrapped with silk, were actively exported from Baghdad to Egypt as trade goods. The cost of such thread was 20 times higher than the price of gold (32). Based on this information, we can assume that, no earlier than the end of the 11th century along with prepared fabrics and embroideries, these same gold threads could have reached the territory of medieval Rus' and could, in turn, have been used by local embroiderers. Prior to this, the types of ornament and the technology of producing medieval Russian goldwork are no different from Scandinavian examples from the Viking era. It would appear that Scandinavian and medieval Russian goldwork came from the same foreign source.



Appendix I: Catalog of 10th century archeological finds of goldwork embroidery



  1. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-301 (chamber), a blanket(?) woven from pieces of silk 39-40 cm wide: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10; "Put' iz varjag v greki...": Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19.
  2. Gnjozdovo, large "royal" burial mound from the Sizov dig, a helmet with a fragment of fused gold thread from embroidery: Sizov, V.I. 1885 Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR, no. 28. St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16 and 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. "Drevnerusskoe oruzhie." SAI, 1971(3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus 9, 1 (no. 9).
  3. Gnjozdovo, burial mound 97 (collection from several complexes): Bulkin, B.A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142; State Historical Museum, item 1537-586. 
  4. Gnjozdovo, burial mound TS-198, a gold-woven band from a headband or scarf: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  5. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Dn-4, band and braid from a kaftan: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  6. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Ol'-30, burial 1: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10.
  7. Gnjozdovo, burial mound Pol'-76, golden thread: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkani Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8.
  8. Chernihiv, Black Grave, embroidery from clothing, the large "royal" burial mound: Fekhner, M.V. Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija, 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  9. Timerovo, burial mound 295, golden thread twisted on a silk core, braid: Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73.
  10. Timerevo, burial mound 348: Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987(2), p. 80.
  11. Timerevo, burial mound 297, burial 1 (raek. Sadykh), golden threads from an embroidered collar: Dubov, I.V., Sedykh, V.I. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika. Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus. 4, 5.
  12. Timerevo, burial mound 285, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-3.2.
  13. Timerevo, burial mound 382, metallic thread from embroidery: Sedyh, V. "Timerevo - un centre proto-urbain sur la grande voie de la Volga." Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figure 4.4.
  14. Pskov, Trupekhovskij excavation I (Zakurin), male deceased with gold thread neck to pelvis. Data: late 10th-early 11th century: Zakurina, T.Ju. "Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  15. Kiev, grave near the Church of the Tithes, no. 123. Mentioned are the remains of brocade(?) on the skull of the buried woman: Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kidievich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androshuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123. Based on the find in a single necklace (a dirkhem (Arabian silver coin), carnelian and round, hollow silver beads with decoration), it can be argued that the necklace dates to the 10th century, possibly to the last quarter of the 10th century.


Appendix II: Catalog of archeological finds of medieval Russian gold thread, gimp thread, and embroideries, 10th-13th centuries

Ukraine:

  1. Kiev: Karger, M.K. Drevnij Kiev. Vol. 1; burial no. 15 and 123 from the Molchanovskij dig (Novitskaja suggested that the fabric was part of a metropolitan vestment): Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom s izobrazheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofia Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973; Karger (silken fabrics with goldwork embroidery from the Church of the Tithes); the 1903 cache from the Mikhailovskij Monastery, see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 19-20 (4 fragments); Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1982, table 33, p. 44 (embroideries 19 and 23 from Kiev are taken into account)
  2. Belgorod, Kiev region; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Otkrytie Belgorodskogo mogil'nika." Sov. arkheologija, 1976(2), pp. 245-247; Mezentseva, G.G., Prilipko, Ja.P. "Davn'orus'kij mogil'nik Belgoroda-Kshvskogo." Arkheologija 1980(35), pp. 98-110; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 5 fragments).
  3. Shargorod, Kiev region; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 8 fragments); Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Tekstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." Vshentsh Vjacheslavovich Kvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu archeolopju (do 150-pichchja vsch dnja narozhennja). Kiev, 2000.
  4. Nabutovo (town of Ochakov), Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 6 fragments).
  5. Romashki, Kiev region: Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments).
  6. Knjazh'ja Gora, Kiev region: Beljashevskij, N.F., "Raskopki na Knjazh'ej gore v 1891 g." Kievskaja Starina, 1892(XXXVI, January), p. 84, illus. 34-35; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (Tablet number 5 - 5 fragments)
  7.  Rossava, Kiev region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM (51), Moscow, 1980, p. 127, illus 2.
  8. Chernihiv: mentioned is a find of gold-woven fabric from a grave in the Church of the Savior of Chernigov: Makarenko, M.G. "Boja Chershpvs'kogo Spasa." Cherntv vshchne Livoberezhzhja. Kiev, 1928, p. 188; Makarenko, M. "Chershpvs'kij Spas." Zapiski Istorichno-fijulopchnogo vshdilu VUAK. Kiev, 1928, pp. 13-15; one more fragment of "silver brocade" was found in a grave under the apses of the 12th cent. Assumption Cathedral, see: Rybakov, B.A. "Drevnosti Chernigova." MIA (I), Moscow, 1949, p. 68; Kibal'chich, T.V. "1879 Arkheologicheskaja nakhodka." Chernigovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti. Prebavl k no. 25; mention of a find of a burial with silk fabric embroidered with gold near the Church of St. Michael: Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigovskoj uchenoj arkhivnoj komissii za 1909 g. Chernihiv, 1910; Boldin mountains, the Trinity burial mound group (burial mound IX), see; Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993(82), p. 14; fabric with goldwork embroidery from a female(?) grave in a crypt in the courtyard of Chernihiv zemstvo and burial no. 5 with a piece of gimp thread (Tarnovskij Chernihiv Historical Museum, item A 5-211/5 (nb: no. 1-2 Chernihiv Museum): Otchjot o dejatel'nosti Chernigoskoj uchenoj momissii za 1909 g., pp 10-11; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 34; Novitskaja, M.O, 1972, p. 44 (included 2); Marionilla in. (Salamatova) "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." "Seredn'ovkhchsh starozinoep Svdennop Ruy-UkraTni." Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelogichna konferentsja. Chernihiv, 2004, p. 71-75.
  9. Kovchinskoe town, Cherihiv region: Kovalenko, V.P, Sytyj, Ju.N. "Otchjot ob okhrannyx rabotakh v mezhdurech'e Desna i Ostra." Nauchyj arkhiv I.A. NANU, 1992(63).
  10. Larionovka, Chernihiv region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), p. 14; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeolicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215; the publication mentions that the State Historical Museum has the braid from: Guschinskoe and Strizhnevskoe burial mound groups from Chernihiv, in the article: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM, 1993(82), Moscow.
  11. Rajki, Zhitomir province: Novitskaya, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 2 fragments); a dig by V.K. Goncharkov (unpublished).
  12. Zhizhava, Ternopil region: Pasternak, Ja.L. Korotka arkheologija zakhschnikh ukrashs'kikh zemel'. L'viv, 1932, p. 63; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included  2 fragments).
  13. Zvenigorod, L'viv province: Vlasova, G.M., Voznitskij, B.G. "K issledovaniju severo-zapadnoj chasti Zvenigoroda." Kratkie coobschenija o polevykh arkheologicheskikh issledovanijakh Odesskogo gos. Arkheologicheskogo muzeja v 1960 g. Odessa, 1961, table 1; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  14. Plesnesk (Podgortsy), L'viv region: "pieces of brocade ribbon and a piece of gold-woven brocade," see: Ratich, O. Dervneruc'm arkheologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhvdnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 27;  Archeologija Prekarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 113; Archelogichsh pam'jatki URSR, table 3, 5.
  15. Galich (Krilos), "in the apses of the Cathedral of the Annunciation, in the pit's inhumations were found pieces of gold-woven brocade and a tiara", "in the stone sarcophagus from the Cathedral of the Annunciation (a female about 20 years old) was found a brocade headband with gold ornament": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju archeologichsh pam'jatki na teritori zakhschnikh oblastej URSR. Kiev, 1957, p. 53; Chachkovs'kij, L. Knjazhij Galich. Stashslav, 1938, pp. 13-16; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, pp. 44, 48 (included 1 fragment); Tomenchuk, B.P. "Pretserkovij kladovischa knjazhogo Galicha." Galich i Galits'ka zemlja. Zbirnik naukkovikh prats'. Kiev-Galich, 1998, pp. 129-131. In 1941, Pasternak uncovered near the Cathedral of the Assumption a grave with golden embroidery. In 1990, 5 pieces with goldwork. In 1988-1989 near the village of Pitrich near a 13th century monastery was found several female burials with gold embroidered headscarves.
  16. Gorodnitsa, Ivano-Fran. region: "in a female burial was found a gold-woven headband and fabric with embroidered images of birds": Ratich, O. Drevnerus'ju..., p. 45; Arkheologija Prikarpat'ja, Volyni i Zakarpat'ja. Kiev, 1990, p. 143. 
  17. Zovnino, Cherkassk region: Djadenko, V.D., Motsja, O.P. "Zhovnins'kij mogil'nik XI-XIII st." Arkheologija Kiev. 1986(54), pp. 82-90.
  18. Perejaslavl-Khmel'nitskij: Tovkajlo, V.D., Buzjan, O.P., Rozdobud'ko, M.V., et.al. "ZVIT pro okhoronni doogidzhennja davn'rus'kogo gruntovogo mogil'nika v Perjaslavl u 2005 rosh. Perejaslav-Xmel'nijij, 2006. Nauchnij arkhiv IA NANU. (a grave in the left blank area of the city, on Museum Street, in graves no. 38 and 54, housed goldwork embroidery from a collar).
  19. Ur. Kalourovodo, Perejaslavskij region, Poltava oblast: Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 32; National Museum of the History of Ukraine, no. 19287.
  20. Khersonesos: Khersonesos Museum-Reserve, inventory no. 6292; Kostjushko-Voljuzhanich, V.I. Otchet o raskopkakh v Khersonese Tavchicheskom v 1904 g." IAK (20), pp 38-39, Illus 17-18; OAK za 1904 g., p. 42, illus 63-64; Novitskaja, M.O. "Gaptuvannja v Juvsk'ksh Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na territori URSR)." Archeologija, Table XVIII, Kiev, 1965, p. 35, table IV; Novitskaja, M.O., 1972, p. 44 (included 1 fragment).
  21. Vladimir-Volynskij: Fekhner, 1977: map.

Russia:

  1. Velikij Novgorod: cuffs of Varlaam Khuynskij. Svirin, Drevnerusskoe shit'jo. Moscow, 1963, pp. 25, 27, illus. on page 25; NGMZ inventory no. 1624; Digs in the Martir'ev church entryway (Sedov, Pizhemskij) silk. Fabric with a golden embroidered "Aleksandr...": Rzhiga, P.F. "O tkanjakh domongol'skoj Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1932(IV,2), illus 2 (cuffs from the burial of Vladimir Jaroslavich); a silken golden braid with geometrical design, tablet woven, on a 12th cent. podea from Novgorod with Russian embroidery. It is preserved in the department of fabric, State Historical Museum, per: "Shjolkoye tkany kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po arkheologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 218.
  2. Velikij Novgorod, Derevjanitskij burial ground: collars with golden embroidery from 12 grave sites. See: Konetskij, Ja.V. "Drevnerusskij gruntovyj mogil'nik u poselka Derevjanitsy okolo Novgoroda." Novgorodskij istoricheskij sbornik. 2(12), Leningrad, 1982; Konetskij, Ja.V., Nosov, E.N. Zagadki Novgorodskoj okrugi. Leningrad, 1985, pp. 113-116.
  3. Rjurikovo village (Novgorod): fragments of golden thread from foil in the lower layers of the moat: NOE-2001, RG-323, section 68, gl. +1.08 meters, disassembly of the contents of building no. 1; RG-368, section 70, gr. 0.9 meter, a dark grey layer, dated the second half of the XI-XIII cent.
  4. Khreple, Novgorod region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82), Moscow, 1993, p. 17.
  5. Staraja Rjazan': Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.V. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382. Table 137, 144-145, 147-150; Jakunin, L.I. "Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani." KSIIMK 1947 (XXI), illus 36.3.
  6. Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 17-18 (2 fragments).
  7. Fat'janovka, Staraja Rjazan': Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 20.
  8. Maklakovo, Rjazan' region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 19 (3 fragments).
  9. Smolensk, from a grave at the Church of St. John the Divine: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 19.
  10. Kokhany, Smolensk region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  11. Krivovitsy and Zhdkalov Bor, Pskov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), Moscow, p 128; now stored in the Hermitage (OAVES), inventory number 860/19, 868/345-346 (3 fragments of braid)
  12. Dmitrov: Engovatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannyx tekstil'nyx izdelij iz nekropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  13. Suzdal': Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77.
  14. Vladimir, Cathedral of the Assumption, grave of Andrej Bogoljubskij: Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' s izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972; Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 125-126, illustration 1; State Historical Museum inventory number 58400/2561/1.
  15. Shelebovo (Davydov burial mound), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, pp. 13-14 (2 fragments).
  16. Vasil'ki, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  17. Kubaevo, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14-15 (6 fragments).
  18. Osipovtsy, Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15 (2 fragments).
  19. Shushpanovo, Vladimir region: see: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  20. Vjazniki (town of Pirrovo - Jaropolch-Zalesskij), Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Ispano-russkaja torgovlja XII veka." Trudy GIM 1980(51), 1980, pp. 127, illus. 3; State Historical Museum no. 102338/1672/1-2.
  21. Karash, Jaroslav region: Vladimir region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 15-16 (4 fragments).
  22. Belogurovskaja, Ivanov region: Vladimir region:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16.
  23. Antonovo, Ivanov region: Vladimir region, see:  Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  24. Zolotnikovskaja Pustyn', Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 78-79.
  25. Jakshino, Ivanov region: Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA 1993(210), pp. 79-80.
  26. Moscow Kremlin, Cathedral of the Assumption (female grave, 12th century): Sheljapina, N.S., Fedorov, V.I. "Arkheologicheskie nabljudenija v Uspenskom cobore Moskovskogo Kremlja." Arkheologicheskie otkrytija 1968 g. Moscow, 1969, p. 83; Sheljapina, N.S. "Arkheologicheskie issledovanija v Uspenskom sobore." Muzei Moskovskogo Kremlja. Materialy i issledovanija 1973(1), pp. 59,60.
  27. Aseevo, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  28. Novljanskaja, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 17.
  29. Pushkino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  30. Anis'kino, Moscow region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 18.
  31. Kir'janova, Jaroslav region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 14.
  32. Balakhinskij district, Gor'kov region: Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM 1993 (82). Moscow, 1993, pp. 16-17.
  33. South-east Priladozh'e, Ojat' river basin: Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207.
  34. Staraja Ladoga: Kirpichnikov, SAI, Raek. 2 no 240.
  35. Beloozero (X-XIII centuries): Zakharov, S.D. Drevnerusskij gorod Beloozero. Moscow, 2004, Illus. 265, 304, 16 (3 golden fragments of thread from embroidery). On pp. 92-93, S.D. Zakharov notes that regions of concentration of "prestigious" finds align with the regions of the earliest cultural deposits. That is, fragments of embroidery may date from the earliest period - the turn of the 10th-11th centuries.

Belarus

  1. Birkovo, Kobrujst region: "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy po archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 215.
  2. Grodno: Voronin, N.N. "Drevnee Grodno." MIA 1954(41). Lower church, burial 4 (a girl 9-10 years old) near the north nave. On the head, there are traces of gimp thread, p. 177; grave 1 (male) on the skull there is a gold-woven band, p. 180, illus 99.1, dated: XIII-early XIV century.
  3. Lisno, Verkhnedvinskij district: Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany i ozera Lisno." KSIA 1983(175), p. 86, illus. 2; Sergeeva, Z.M. "Kurgany severo-zapada Polotskoj zelmli." Academia, 1996, pp. 32-33, illus 31. A part of an collar embroidered with gold thread with three bronze buttons from barrow 4. The collar is embroidered using couching. The width is 3.5 cm. A pattern of alternating crosses and birds in a circle. Silk, golden threads.
  4. Novogrudok: Gurevich, F.D. "Pogrebal'nye pamjatniki zhitelej Novogrudka (konets X-70-e gody XIII vv.)." KSIA, 1983(175), p. 52. In the grave were found 100 gold threads near the cervical vertibrae.
  5. Settlement on Menke (ancient Minsk): Zagorul'skij, E.M. Vozniknovenie Minska. Minsk, 1982, p. 357, table XLI/3. A fragment of gold-fabric collar with ornament in the form of strips/rhombuses from a layer dated to 1140-1160.
  6.  Minsk, temple 1949: Saburova, M.A. "Pogreval'naja drevnerusskaja odezhda i nekotorye voprosy ejo tipologii." Drevnosti slavjan i Rusi. Moscow, 1988, pp. 226-271; Tarasenko, V.R. "Drevnij Minsk." Materialy po arkheologii BSSR. Minsk, 1957, pp. 182-257.
  7. Polevka, near Borisovo: Sergeeva, Z.M. O rasprostranenii shjolkovykh tkanej v pamjatnikakh X-XIII vv. v Belarusi; Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.
  8. Vyshalkovskij complex, Gorodok district, Vitebsk region: Laskavyj, G.V., Duchits, L.V. "Novye dannye o kostjume rannesrednevekovogo naselenija Belarusi." Pstarychna-Arkhealapchny Zbornik, 1996(8), Minsk, pp. 62-63.


Endnotes

  1. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 10.
  2. Nosov, E.N., et. al. "Novye issledovanija na Rjurikovom gorodische v 2001 g." Novgorod i Novgorodskaja zemlja: istoria i arkheologija. Novgorod, 2002, pp. 13-14.; Nosov, E.N., Mikhajlov, K.A., et.al. Issledovanija Rjurikova gorodischa. AO 2001, Moscow 2002, p. 65.
  3. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, p. 226.
  4. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie. Tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1971, Examples 4c, 4g, 33, p. 40.
  5. Jakunin, L.I. Fragmenty tkanej iz Staroj Rjazani. KSIIMK XXI 1947; Levashova, V.P. "Venchiki zhenskogo golovnogo ubora iz kurganov X-XII vv." Slavjane i Rus'. Moscow, 1965; Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovue tkani kak istochnik dlja izuchenija ekonomicheskikh svjazej Drevnej Rusi." Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971; Klimova, N.T. "Tekhnologija shelkovyx tkanej iz kollektsii gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeja.Istorija i kul'tura Vostochnoj Evropy no archeologicheskim dannym. Moscow, 1971, pp. 228-243; Novitskaja, M.O. "Haptuvannja v Kyivs'kij Rusi (Za materialami rozkopok na teritorii URSR)." Arxeologija (XVIII), 1965, p. 24-38; Novitskaja, M.O. "Zolotnaja vyshivka Drevnej Rusi." Byzantinoslavica, 1972, table 33, pp. 42-50. Novitskaja, M.A. "Vyshivki zolotom c izobrezheniem figur, najdennye pre raskopkakh v Sofii Kievskoj." Sofija Kievskaja. Materialy issledovanij. Kiev, 1973, pp. 62-63; Orlov, R.S. "Davn'orus'ka vishivka XII st." Arkheologija (12), Kiev, 1973, pp. 41-50; Saburova, M.A. "Stojachie vorotnichki i 'ozherelki' v drevnerusskoj odezhde." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoj Rusi." Srednevekovaja Rus'. Moscow, 1976, pp 222-225; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3), pp. 130-142; Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405; Fekhner, M.V. "Izdelija zolotnogo shit'ja iz kurganov bassejna r. Ojati." Kurgany letopisnoj vesi. Petrozavodsk, 1985, pp. 204-207; Saburova, M.A., Elkina, A.K. "Detali drevnerusskoj odezhdy po materialam nekropolja g. Suzdalja." Materialy po srednevekovoj arkheologii Severo-Vostochnoj Rusi. Moscow, 1991, pp. 53-77; Komarov, K.I. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 77-85. Fekhner, M.V. "Drevnerusskoe zolotnoe shit'jo X-XIII v sobranii GIM." Trudy GIM (82), Moscow, 1993, pp. 3-21; Darkevich, V.P., Borisevich, G.B. Drevnjaja stolitsa Rjazanskoj zemli. Moscow, 1995, pp. 376, 380-382, tables 137, 144-145, 147-150; Klochko, L., Vredits, Ja. "Doslschzhennja tekstilju." Tserkva Vogorodisch Desjatina v Kneei [sic]. Kiev, 1996, pp. 106-107, illus 14-16; Saburova, M.A. "Drevnerusskij kostjum." Drevnjaja Rus': Byt i kul'tura. Moscow, 1997, pp. 99-102; Klochko, L., Strokova, L. "Teksstil' z davn'orus'kogo mogil'nika poblizu s. Sharki z raskopok V.V. Khvojki." VshentSh Vjacheslavovich Xvojka ta jogo vnesok u vichiznjanu arkheolopju (do 150-r1chchja V1D dna narozhennja). Kiev, 2000, pp. 99-110; Marionilla in. (Salamatova). "Shityj vorotnichok domongol'skogo perioda iz Chernigova i technicheskie osobennosti ego ispolnenija." Seredn'oviche starozhitnosm Svdennop Rusi-Ukrajna. III Mezhnarodna students'ka naukova archelopchna konferentsija. Chernihiv, 2004, pp. 71-75; Enjuvatova, A.V., Orfinskaja, O.V., Golikov, V.P. "Issledovanija zolotkannykh tekstil'nykh izdelij iz nedropolej Dmitrovskogo kremlja." Rus' v IX-XIV vekakh: Vzaimodejstvie Severa i Juga. Moscow, 2005, pp. 176-195.
  6. Fekhner, M.V. "Shjolkovye tkani kak istochnik...", 1971, p. 214; Fekhener [sic], M.V. "Izdelija shjolkotkatskikh masterskikh...", 1977, p. 149.
  7. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  8. In these calculations, I used information about foil from yellow metal (gold). Foil from white metal (silver) was not accounted for in this work.
  9. Hermitage, OAVES: Vladimir kurgans (transferred from the Archeological Institute), Location of finds is unknown. Collection 671 / 100, 101, 103; Kostroma region, excavations by F.D. Nefjodova, Collection 624 / 264; Chernihiv Historical Museum, A 5-211/5.
  10. For example, K.I. Komarov indicates a number of burial sites with finds of goldwork embroidery from the Vladimir burial mounds. Information about these finds is, so far, difficult to confirm. Burial grounds near: (1) Gorodische, near the Glinskij ravine; (2) Gorodische, near the Bremblok ravine; (3) Gorodische, on the right bank of the Sluda ravine; (all of the following are from near Suzdal') (4) Bol'shaja Brembola 1; (5) Kolenovo, Vepreva Pusyn'; (6) Seljatino-Konkzhovo; (7) Vorogovo; (8) Isakovo; (9) Gorki-Bogdanovskie; (10) Matvejschivo; (11) Konstantinove 2; (12) Fantyrevo; (13) Sverchkovo; (14) Kraskovo 1; (15) Frolischi; (16) Kosinskoe; (17) Nenashevskoe; (18) Danilovskoe; (19) Varvarino; (20) Koptevo 2; (21) Lychevo; (22) Davydovskoe Maloe; (23) Romanove; (24) Sizino 2; (25) Pogost Bykovo; (26) Isady; (27) Krasnoe 3; (28) Suzdal' (Mikhajlov side); (29) Gnjozdilovo (near); (30) Dobroe; cf: Komarov, K.M. "Importnye tkani vo Vladimirskikh kurganakh." KSIA (210), Moscow, 1993, pp. 82-83. On a map of goldwork embroidery finds, M.V. Fekhner notes finds of golden bands from: Volochek-Lamskij, Lisno, Vitebsk region, Vladimir-Volynskij. These finds are also, to date, not confirmed by other sources. cf: Fekhner, M.V. "Idelija shjolkotkatskix masterskikh Vizantii v Drevnej Rusi." SA, 1977 (3). Information exists about finds of goldwork embroidery from excavations in Staraja Russa, from a grave near Raglity in the Novgorod region, and several others.
  11. In the works of M.O. Novitskaja, golden threads from the Chernihiv Trinity group of burial mounds, which originate from the 11th-12th centuries, are mistakenly attributed to finds from the 10th century.
  12. Ierusalimskaja, A.A. Slovar' tekstil'nykh terminov. St. Petersburg, 2005, p. 38, Illus. 24, 38в.
  13. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111). Moscow, 1999, pp. 8, 10. "Put' iz varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, pp. 6, 18-19; Zharnov, Ju. E. "Zhenskie skandinavskie pogrebenija v Dnjozdove." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, 1991, p. 208.
  14. GIM Sergeev Op. 1537-586; Bulkin, V. A. "'Kurgan 97' iz raskopok S.I. Sergeeva v Gnjozdove." Severnaja Rus' i ejo sosedi v epokhu rannego srednevekov'ja. Leningrad, 1982, pp. 138-142.
  15. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova." Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8; "Put' ez varjag v greki..." Katalog vystavki. Moscow, 1996, p. 54, no. 292.
  16. Avdusin, D.A., Pushkina, T.A. "Tri pogrebal'nye kamery iz Gnjozdova." Istorija i kul'tura drevnerusskogo goroda. Moscow, 1989, p. 198; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10. Stored in the Department of Archeology of Moscow State University.
  17. Fekhner, M.V. "Tkany Gnjozdova.Trudy GIM (111), Moscow, 1999, p. 8, 10; Kamenetskaja, E. V. "1991 Zaolynanskaja kurgannaja gruppa Gnjozdova." Smolensk i Gnjozdovo. Moscow, pp. 125-173.
  18. Sizov, V.I. Bol'shoj kurgan no. 20 MAR. 1885 (28). St. Petersburg, 1902, p. 66, illus. 16, 17; Kirpichnikov, A.N. Drevnerusskoe oruzhie (3). Leningrad, 1971, pp. 27-28, illus. 9, 1 (no. 9).
  19. Fekhner, M.V. "Zolotnoe shit'jo Drevnej Rusi." Pamjatniki kul'tury. Novye otkrytija. 1978. Leningrad, 1979, pp. 401-405.
  20. Mal'm, V.A., Nedoshshina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika bliz Jaroslavlja." AO 1977. Moscow, 1978, pp. 72-73; Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), p. 80; Dubov, I.V., Sedyx, V.N. Novye issledovanija Timerevskogo mogil'nika., Leningrad, 1992, p. 118, illus 4,5; Sedyh, V. "Les centres proto-urbains russes entre Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient." Realites Byzantines. Paris, 2000, Figures 3.1-2, 4.4.
  21. Nedoshivina, N.G., Fekhner, M.V. "Ethnokul'turnaja kharakteristika timerevskogo mogil'nika po materialam pogrebal'nogo inventarja." SA 1987 (2), pp. 80, 84-85.
  22. Zakurina, T. Ju. "Pogrebenie 1 (74) Trupekhovskogo I raskopa v Pskove." Materialy i istorija Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Materialy LI Nauchnogo seminara. Pskov, 2006, pp. 62-63.
  23. Inkova, V. Kalojanovoto pogrebenie: tekhniko-laboratornye issledovanija. Sofia, 1979, pp. 9-62; Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling in the Light of recent Archaeological Excavations. A Preliminary Report." Acta Archaeologica. 1982 (53), Copenhagen, p. 202, illus 14, 25; Fekhner, M.V. "Tkan' c izobrazhenijami l'vov i ptits iz velikoknjazheskoj grobnitsy vo Vladimire." Novoe v arkheologii. Moscow, 1972.
  24. Kopilov, 1951, pp. 233-235; Karger, 1958, pp. 206-207, table XXVII; Kishevich, 1982, pp. 150-151; Androschuk, Panchenko, Kovaljukh, 1996, p. 123.
  25. France-Lanord, A., Fleury, M. "Das Grab der Arnegundis in Saint-Denis." Germania, 40 (2). Berlin, 1962, pp. 345, 352-353, illus 3, 5, Tables 31, 7.
  26. Hagg, I. "Textilfunde aus der Siedlung und aus den Grabern von Haithabu." Berichte uber die Ausgrabungen in Haithabu. (29), Neumunster, 1991, pp. 244-247, Illus. 123
  27. Eisenschmidt, S. "Kammergraber der Wikingerzeit in Altdanemark." Universitatsforschungen zur Prahistorischen Archaologie. (25) Bonn, 1994, pp. 99-100, 112, 115, 121.
  28. [jeb: missing in original]
  29. Krogh, K. "The Royal Viking-Age Monuments at Jelling...", p. 202, fig. 14, 25.
  30. Geijer, A. "Die Textilfunde aus den Grabern." Birka III. Uppsala, 1938, pp. 97-105.
  31. Hougen, B. "Gulltrad fra Gokstadfunnet." Honos Ella Kivikoski / SMAFFT. (75) Helsinki, 1973, pp. 77, 79, Fig. 5-8.
  32. Krag, A.M. "Frankisch-byzantinische trachteinftasse in drei danischen grabfunden des 10 jahrhunderts." Archaologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 29(3). Mainz, 1999, pp. 425-444.
  33. Bol'shakov, O.G. Srednevekovij gorod Blizhnego Vostoka VII-seredina XIII v.: Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskie otnoshenija. 2nd ed. Moscow, 2001, pp. 259-260.